welcome

update September 2002 (incorporated into main bibliography)

forthcoming (additional to main bibliography)

Contents

1. surveys Surveys and Bibliographies

2. edited Edited Collections of Papers

3. introductions Introductions

4a. placenames Place-Names and Linguistic Relationships

4b. names Personal Names

5a. lexiref Lexicography: Reference Works

5b. lexigloss Lexicography: Dialect Glossaries

5c. lexidiscuss Lexicography: Discussions

6. sources Sources of the Vocabulary

7. oscgen Older Scots: General

8. oscorthog Older Scots: Orthography and Paleography

9. oscphon Older Scots: Phonology

10. oscregional Older Scots: Regional and Social Variation

11. oscgrammar Older Scots: Grammar

12. oscverse Older Scots: Style - Verse

13. rhetoric Older Scots: Style - Rhetoric

14. oscprose Older Scots: Style - Prose

15. oscspeech Older Scots: Speech

16. angloscots Anglo-Scots

17. anglic Anglicisation

18. modgen Modern Scots: General

19. modlexis Modern Scots: Lexis

20. modgrammar Modern Scots: Grammar

21. modcontinuum Modern Scots: The Scots/Standard English Continuum

22a. modphongen Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - General

22b. modphonregional Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - Regional

22c. modphonlength Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - Vowel Length and Aitken's Law

22d. modphonsupraseg Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - Suprasegmental

22e. modphonhist Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology -Historical

23. modorthog Modern Scots: Orthography and Spelling Reform

24a. statusgen Modern Scots: Status and Identity - General and Political

24b. demoling Modern Scots: Status and Identity - Demo-Linguistics

24c. atttiudes Modern Scots: Status and Identity - Language Attitudes

24d. comparisons Modern Scots: Status and Identity - Comparisons between Scots and other Minority Languages

24e. synthetic Modern Scots: Status and Identity - Synthetic Scots and Standardisation

25. education Modern Scots: Education

26. media Modern Scots: Mass Media

27. maintenance Modern Scots: Language Maintenance

28. socioling Modern Scots: Quantitative Sociolinguistics

29. discourse Modern Scots: Discourse Analysis

30. modstylegen Modern Scots: Style - General

31. modprose Modern Scots: Style - Prose, including drama

32. modpoetry Modern Scots: Style - Poetry

33. translation Modern Scots: Translation

34. linggeog Modern Scots: Linguistic Geography

35. oands Modern Scots Dialects: Orkney and Shetland

36. caithness Modern Scots Dialects: Caithness

37. ne Modern Scots Dialects: North-East

38. dundee Modern Scots Dialects: Dundee

39. emid Modern Scots Dialects: East Central

40. glasgow Modern Scots Dialects: Glasgow

41a. kintyre Modern Scots Dialects: West Central (Kintyre)

41b. ayrshire Modern Scots Dialects: West Central (Ayrshire)

42. sw Modern Scots Dialects: South West

43. south Modern Scots Dialects: Southern

44. ulster Modern Scots Dialects: Ulster

45. handi Highland and Island English

46. gaelic Influence of Scots on Gaelic

47. english Influence of Scots on English

48. fremit Scots in non-English-speaking countries

 

1. Surveys and Bibliographies

References to further sources of bibliography: bibliography, bibliography2. The National Library's Bibliography of Scotland (BOS) is on-line at http://www.nls.uk/. This bibliography includes minor journalistic writings, not listed here, which are sometimes valuable as evidence of language attitudes or lexical erosion. Their Bibliography of the Scots Language (BOSLAN) is still under construction.

Adams, G. Brendan (1981) "Dialect work in Ulster: an historical account of research in the area" in Michael Barry ed. Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University, 5-17.

Adams, G. Brendan (1982) "Report on dialect work in Ulster", Scottish Language 1, 6-12.

Adams, J. R. R. (1989) "A preliminary checklist of works containing Ulster dialect, 1700-1900", Linen Hall Review 6:3, 10-12.

Aitken, A. J. (1971/1972) "The present state of Scottish language studies", Scottish Literary News 2, 34-44.

Aitken, A. J. (1979) "Studies on Scots and Scottish Standard English today" in A. J. Aitken and Tom McArthur (1979) Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 137-160.

Aitken, A. J. (1991) "Progress in Older Scots philology", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 19-37.

Aitken, A. J. (1994) "Progress in the study of Modern Scots since 1948" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 1-40.

Aldus, J. S. Butler (1976) "Anglo-Irish dialects: a bibliography. Enlarged version", Regional Language Studies - Newfoundland 7, 7-28.

Bibliography of Scotland on CD-ROM (1997, annual updates) Edinburgh: National Library of Scotland.

Bird, Barbara (1997) "Past and present studies of Hebridean English phonology" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 287-300.

Cheape, Hugh ed. (1993) Tools and Traditions. Studies in European Ethnology presented to Alexander Fenton Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland. Fenton bibliography to 1990.

Clark, Robert ed. (periodically updated) Annotated Bibliography for English Studies Lisse: Martin Scrivener. CD-ROM and by subscription at http://abes.swets.nl/. Scots entries by J. Derrick McClure.

Corrigan, Karen (1990) "Northern Hiberno-English: the state of the art", Irish University Review 20:1, 91-119.

Geddie, William (1912) A Bibliography of Middle Scots Poets. Edinburgh and London: Blackwood for the Scottish Text Society.

Harris, John (1991) "Ireland" in Jenny Cheshire ed. English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, 37-50.

Jensen, Gilian Fellows (1981) "A bibliography of onomastic and related topics related to Scotland and Scandinavia", Northern Studies 18, 13-19.

Kirk, John (1997) "Ulster English: the state of the art" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 135-179.

Macafee, Caroline and Iseabail Macleod eds. (1987) The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press. Aitken bibliography to 1986.

McClure, J. Derrick ed. (1983) Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in Honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press. Murison bibliography to 1982.

Mather, James (1964) "Dialect research in Orkney and Shetland after Jakobsen", Fróðskaparrit 13, 33-45.

Meier, Hans (1996/97) "Eugen Dieth, Zürich (18 November 1893 - 24 May 1956) and the Buchan dialect", Review of Scottish Culture 10, 139-140.

Murison, David (1950) "Studies in Scots since 1918", Anglia 69:4, 387-397.

Murison, David (1967) "A survey of Scottish language studies", Forum for Modern Language Studies 3:3, 276-285.

Scheps, Walter and J. Anna Looney (1986) Middle Scots Poets. A Reference Guide to James I of Scotland, Robert Henryson, William Dunbar, and Gavin Douglas Boston, Mass.: Hall & Co. Annotated bibliography.

Suárez, Isabel Carrera (1987) "Scottish Studies in Spanish universities", Scottish Literary Journal 16:1, 59-64.

Woolley, J. S. (1954) Bibliography for Scottish Linguistic Studies, Edinburgh: James Thin for the University of Edinburgh Linguistic Survey of Scotland.

contents

 

2. Edited collections of papers

[Adams, G. Brendan] ed. (1964) Ulster Dialects. An Introductory Symposium, Cultra: Ulster Folk Museum.

Adams, G. Brendan, edited Michael Barry and Philip Tilling (1986) The English Dialects of Ulster. An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech, Cultra: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum. Posthumous collection of papers.

Aitken, A. J. ed. (1973) Lowland Scots, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional papers 2.

Aitken, A. J., Matthew McDiarmid and Derick Thomson, eds. (1977) Bards and Makars: Scottish Language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance, Glasgow University Press.

Aitken, A. J. and Tom McArthur (1979) Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers.

Barry, Michael (1981) Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University.

Blanchot, Jean-Jacques and Claude Graf eds. (1978) Actes du 2e Colloque de Langue et de Litterature Ecossaises (Moyen Age et Renaissance), University of Strasbourg.

Caie, Graham et al. eds. (2000?) The European Sun. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Scottish Language and Literature, University of Strathclyde, 16-21 August, 1993 East Linton: Tuckwell Press.

Drescher, Horst and Pierre Morère eds. (1994) Scottish Studies: Proceedings of the Scottish Workshop of the ESSE Conference, Bordeaux 1993, GDR Études Écossaises, Université Stendhal, Grenoble and Scottish Studies Centre, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Germersheim.

Fenton, Alexander and Donald MacDonald eds. (1994) Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic.

Görlach, Manfred ed. (1985) Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins.

* Jones, Charles ed. (1997) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press.

Lyall, Roderick and Felicity Riddy, eds. (1981) Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Scottish Language and Literature (Medieval and Renaissance) University of Stirling 2-7 July 1981, University of Stirling and University of Glasgow.

Macafee, Caroline and Iseabail Macleod eds. (1987) The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1997) Standards and Variation in Urban Speech, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins. A collection of previously published work, some revised.

McClure, J. Derrick ed. ([1974]) The Scots Language in Education, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 3.

McClure, J. Derrick et al. (1980) The Scots Language: Planning for Modern Usage, Edinburgh: Ramsay Head.

McClure, J. Derrick ed. (1981) "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1 (1981), 35-40. Summaries of conference papers. Subsequently published in full were: A. J. Aitken "Bad Scots: some superstitions about Scots speech", Scottish Language 1 (1982), 30-44; Stephen Mulrine "Poetry in Glasgow dialect" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins (1985), 227-236; Caroline Macafee "Glasgow dialect in literature", Scottish Language 1 (1982), 45-53; Paul Johnston "Variation in the Standard Scottish English of Morningside", English World-Wide 4:2 (1984), 133-185. Not published elsewhere: Adam McNaughton "Glasgow dialect: a view from the classroom".

McClure, J. Derrick ed. (1983) Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in Honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press.

McClure, J. Derrick and Michael Spiller eds. (1989) Bryght Lanternis: Essays on the Language and Literature of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, Aberdeen University Press.

McClure, J. Derrick (1995) Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins. A collection of previously published work, some revised.

Niven, Liz and Robin Jackson eds. (1998) The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw.

Strauss, Dietrich and Horst Drescher eds. (1986) Scottish Language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Thomson, Derick ed. ([1988]) Gaelic and Scots in Harmony: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Languages of Scotland (University of Glasgow, 1988), Department of Celtic, University of Glasgow.

 contents

 

3. Introductions

[Lovie, Rod et al.] (1995) Innin ti the Scots Leid/An Introduction to the Scots Language, Aiberdeen Univairsitie Scots Leid Quorum. An introduction for the layperson, by enthusiasts. Not always accurate.

* Aitken, A. J. (1985) "A history of Scots" in Mairi Robinson, ed.-in-chief, The Concise Scots Dictionary, Aberdeen University Press (now published Edinburgh: Chambers), ix-xvi.

Aitken, A. J. (1998) "Scots" in Glanville Price ed. Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, Oxford: Blackwell, 409-417.

Craigie, William (1950) "Scottish language" in Chambers' Encyclopedia, new edition 1950, revised A. J. Aitken 1962.

Douglas, Sheila (1994) "The Scots language: European roots and local destiny" in J. M. Fladmark ed. Cultural Tourism, London: Donhead, 355-62. Republished as a pamphlet by the Scots Language Resource Centre, Perth. Enthusiastic but naïve.

Eagle, Andrew "Wir Ain Leid. An Innin tae Modren Scots" http://www.scots-online.org/. An introduction for the layperson, by an enthusiast.

* Görlach, Manfred (2002) A Textual History of Scots Heidelberg: C. Winter.

Graham, William (1968) The Handy Guide to Scots, Edinburgh: Ramsay Head Press.

Gramley, Stephan and Kurt-Michael Pätzold (1992) A Survey of Modern English, London/New York: Routledge. See 10.2 "Scotland", 315-321.

Horsburgh, David (1994) Gaelic and Scots in Grampian: An Outline History, Aberdeen University Celtic Society.

Horsburgh, Davie (1997) "'The haill kintra is gat begunkit': the thrawn historie o Scotlan's cultures", Cairn. The Historie Journal in the Scots Leid 1, 7-24.

Kay, Billy (1986,1993) Scots: The Mither Tongue, Edinburgh: Mainstream, republished with revisions, Darvel: Alloway Publishing.

* Macafee, Caroline, incorporating material by the late A. J. Aitken (2002) "A history of Scots to 1700" in A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue vol.12, Oxford University Press, xxi-clvi.

McArthur, Tom ed. (1992) The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press. Various articles by A. J. Aitken. Abridged edition, 1996.

McArthur, Tom (1998) The English Languages Cambridge University Press. "Scots and Southron", 138-159.

McClure, J. Derrick (1988) Why Scots Matters, Edinburgh: The Saltire Society.

McClure, J. Derrick (1993) "What's Scots?" Fortnight 318, special supplement Talking Scots, April 1993, 3-5.

* McClure, J. Derrick (1994) "English in Scotland" in Robert Burchfield ed. The Cambridge History of the English Language Volume 5 English in Britain and Overseas: Origins and Development, Cambridge University Press, 23-93.

McCrum, Robert et al. (1986, 1992) The Story of English, London: Faber and Faber. See Chapter 4. Revised and expanded 1992.

Macleod, Iseabail (1995) "Scots - the Lowland tongue" in Scotland: A Linguistic Double Helix, Dublin/Brussels: The European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages, 29-43.

* Murison, David (1979) "The historical background" in A. J. Aitken and Tom McArthur, eds. Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 2-13.

Murison, David (1981,1993) "The Scottish language" in David Daiches ed. The New Companion to Scottish Culture, Edinburgh: Polygon, 298-300. Originally A Companion to Scottish Culture, London: Edward Arnold, 345-347.

Murison, David (1997) The Guid Scots Tongue, Edinburgh: Blackwood.

Murray, James (1870-72, 1873) The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland, London: Philological Society, originally published in Transactions of the Philological Society. The first detailed history of the language.

Price, Glanville (1984) The Languages of Britain, London: Edward Arnold. See pp.186-193. Revised version: Jeremy Smith (2000) "Scots" in Glanville Price ed. Languages of Britain and Ireland Oxford: Blackwell, 159-70.

* Romaine, Suzanne (1982) "The English language in Scotland" in Richard Bailey and Manfred Görlach eds. English as a World Language, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 56-83.

Romaine, Suzanne and Nancy Dorian (1981) "Scotland as a linguistic area", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 14, 1-24.

Smith, Jeremy (2000) "Scots" in Glanville Price ed. Languages of Britain and Ireland Oxford: Blackwell, 159-70.

Templeton, Janet (1973) "Scots: An outline history" in A. J. Aitken ed. Lowland Scots, Association for Scottish Literary Studies Occasional papers 2, 4-19.

Wilson, Colin (2002) Luath Scots-Language Learner, Edinburgh: Luath Press. Book and double CD. An introduction for the layperson, by an enthusiast.

Wilson, James (1926) The Dialects of Central Scotland, London: Oxford University Press.

 

contents

 

4a. Place-Names and Linguistic Relationships

Alexander, William (1952), The Place-Names of Aberdeenshire Aberdeen: Spalding Club, third series.

Aliaga-Kelly, Christopher (1986) "The Anglo-Saxon Occupation of South-East Scotland", unpublished University of Glasgow PhD thesis.

Barrow, Geoffrey W. S. (1980) The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Barrow, Geoffrey W. S. (1981) Kingship and Unity: Scotland 1000-1306 London: Edward Arnold.

Barrow, Geoffrey W. S. (1989) "The lost Gaidhealtachd of medieval Scotland" in William Gillies ed. Gaelic and Scotland: Alba agus a' Ghaidhlig Edinburgh University Press, 67-88. Also in Geoffrey Barrow Scotland and its Neighbours in the Middle Ages London: Hambledon (1992). (I have not checked whether these are identical.)

Barrow, Geoffrey W. S. (1998) "The uses of place names and Scottish history - pointers and pitfalls" in Simon Taylor ed. The Uses of Place Names, Edinburgh: Scottish Cultural Press, 54-74. Adds further botl names.

Black, George (1946) The Surnames of Scotland. Their Origin, Meaning and History New York: New York Public Library.

Breeze, Andrew (1997) "Etymological notes on Kirkcaldy, Jocteleg 'Knife', Kiaugh 'Trouble', Striffen 'Membrane' and Cow 'Hobgoblin'", Scottish Language 16, 97-110.

Brooke, Daphne (1983) "Kirk-compound place-names of Galloway and Carrick", Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society 58, 56-71.

Brooke, Daphne (1991) "The Northumbrian settlements in Galloway and Carrick: an historical assessment", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 121, 295-327.

Brooke, Daphne (1991) "Gall-Gaidhil and Galloway" in Richard Oram and Geoffrey Stell eds. Galloway: Land and Lordship, Edinburgh: The Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 97-116.

Crawford, Barbara (1987) Scandinavian Scotland, Leicester University Press. Chapter 4 reviews the place-name evidence.

Crawford, Barbara ed. (1995) Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in their Historical Context, London and New York: Leicester University Press.

Crawford, Barbara (1995) "Introduction – the study of place-names" in Barbara Crawford ed., Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in their Historical Context, London/New York: Leicester University Press, 1-13. Figure 3 is a map of areas of Scandinavian settlement in Scotland and Northern England.

Dixon, N. (1947) "Place-Names of Midlothian", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Dorward, D. (1998) Dundee: Names, People and Places, Edinburgh, PUBLISHER.

Drummond, Peter (1991) Scottish Hill and Mountain Names PLACE Scottish Mountaineering Club.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (1984) "Place-names and settlements: some problems of dating as exemplified by place-names in by", Nomina 8, 29-39.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (1984) "Viking settlement in the Northern and Western Isles - the place-name evidence as seen from Denmark and the Danelaw" in Alexander Fenton and Hermann Pásson eds. The Northern and Western Isles in the Viking World, Edinburgh: John Donald, 148-168.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (1985) "Scandinavian settlement in Cumbria and Dumfriesshire: the place-name evidence" in John Baldwin and Ian Whyte eds., The Scandinavians in Cumbria Edinburgh: Society for Northern Studies, 65-82.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (1985) Scandinavian Settlement-Names in the North-West Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzels, Navnestudier 25. North-West of England, but including Dumfries-shire.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (1987) "The Vikings' relationship with Christianity in the British Isles: the evidence of place-names containing the element kirkja" in James Knirk, ed. Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress, Larkollen, Norway, 1985 Oslo University Press, 295-307.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (1989-90) "Scandinavians in Southern Scotland?", Nomina 13, 41-60.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (1991) "Nordiske spor i det midt-skotske lavland?", in NORNA-Rapporter 45, 65-82. Danish version, with minor changes, of "Scandinavians in Southern Scotland?", Nomina 13 (1989-90), 41-60.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (1991) "Scandinavians in Dumfriesshire and Galloway: the place-name evidence" in Richard Oram and Geoffrey Stell eds. Galloway: Land and Lordship, Edinburgh: The Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 77-95.

Fraser, Ian (1979) "The Norse element in Sutherland place names", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 9, 17-27.

Fraser, Ian (1987) "Minor place-names in Scotland - a body of tradition", Scottish Local History 13, 9-10.

Fraser, Ian (1988) "The place-names of Fife", Scottish Language 7, 31-37.

Fraser, Ian (1993) "Innis/inch in Scottish place-names" in Hugh Cheape ed. Tools and Traditions. Studies in European Ethnology presented to Alexander Fenton Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland, 258-263.

Fraser, Ian (1995) "Border place-names" in Donald Omand ed. The Borders Book, Edinburgh: Birlinn, 157-192.

Gelling, M., W. F. H. Nicolaisen and M. Richards (1970) The Names of Towns and Cities in Britain, London: Batsford.

Harris, Stuart (1996) Place Names of Edinburgh: Their Origins and History, Edinburgh: Gordon Wright Publishing.

Hough, Carole (1997) "The earliest Old English place-names in Scotland", Notes and Queries n. s. 44: 2 (June 1997), 148-150.

Jakobsen, Jakob (1897) The Dialect and Place Names of Shetland. Two Popular Lectures, Lerwick: T. & J. Manson.

Johnston-Ferguson, Col. Sir Edward (1935) The Place-Names of Dumfriesshire Dumfries: PUBLISHER.

Johnston, James (1903, 1972) Place-Names of Scotland, Surrey: PUBLISHER, reprint of 3rd edn of 1934. Originally published Edinburgh: Douglas.

Kries, Susanne (1999) "Lexikalische Reflexe skandinavischen Einflusses im älteren Schottisch und im Mittelschottischen" University of Berlin PhD thesis, published on microfiche.

Lorimer, W. L. (1949, 1951) "The persistence of Gaelic in Galloway and Carrick", Scottish Gaelic Studies 6:2, 114-136; 7:1, 26-46.

Lowe, Chris (1999) Angels, Fools and Tyrants. Britons and Anglo-Saxons in Southern Scotland Edinburgh: Canongate Books with Historic Scotland.

MacDonald, Angus (1941) The Place-Names of West Lothian, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.

MacQueen, John (1956) "Kirk- and kil- in Galloway place-names", Archivum Linguisticum 8:2, 135-49.

MacQueen, John (1973) "The Gaelic speakers of Galloway and Carrick", Scottish Studies 17:1, 17-33.

Marwick, Hugh (1952) Orkney Farm Names, Kirkwall: W. R. Mackintosh.

Maxwell, Sir Herbert (1930, 1991) The Place-Names of Galloway Wigtown: PUBLISHER, ORIGINAL PUBLISHER AND PLACE OF PUBLICATION.

Murison, David (1974) "Linguistic relationships in medieval Scotland" in G. W. S. Barrow ed. The Scottish Tradition: Essays in Honours of R. G. Cant, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 71-83.

Murison, David and Loraine Noble (1995) Names and Places. A History of Place and Street Names in and around Fraserburgh, Rathen, Fraserburgh: Buchan Publishing.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1960) "Norse place-names in south-west Scotland", Scottish Studies 4, PAGES. Includes maps not reproduced in Scottish Place-Names.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1968) "Place-names of the Dundee region" in S.J. Jones ed. Dundee and District, Dundee: Dundee Local Executive Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 144-152.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1976) "Scandinavian placenames in Scotland as a source of knowledge", Northern Studies 7/8, 14-24.

* Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1976) Scottish Place-Names: Their Study and Significance, London: Batsford. Some of the maps and discussion are also included in Nicolaisen's chapters in Peter McNeill and Hector MacQueen eds. Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, Edinburgh: The Scottish Medievalists and Department of Geography, University of Edinburgh, 1996; and in the earlier book which this replaces, Peter McNeill and Ranald Nicholson eds. An Historical Atlas of Scotland c. 400 - c. 1600, Atlas Committee of the Conference of Scottish Medievalists, 1975.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1981) "Bagimond's Roll as a toponymic text" in Michael Benskin and M. L. Samuels eds. So Meny People, Longages and Tonges: Philological Essays in Scots and Mediaeval English Presented to Angus McIntosh, 173-187.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1982) "Scandinavians and Celts in Caithness: the place-name evidence", in J. Baldwin ed. Caithness: A Cultural Crossroads, Scottish Society for Northern Studies and Edina Press, 75-85.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1983) "The post-Norse place-names of Shetland" in Donald Withrington ed. Shetland and the Outside World 1469-1969 Oxford University Press for the University of Aberdeen, 69-85.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1985) "Nomen, noun and name: the lexical horns of an onomastic dilemma" in Mary-Jo Arn and Hanneke Wirtjes eds. Historical and Editorial Studies in Medieval and Early Modern English, Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff, 63-72.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1986) "Gaelic place names in Scots", Scottish Language 5, 140-146.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1987) "Imitation and innovation in the Scandinavian place-names of the Northern Isles of Scotland", Nomina 11, 75-85.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1989) "Place-name maps – how reliable are they?" in L. Peterson and S. Strandberg eds., Studia Onomastica: Festskrift till Thorsten Andersson Lund: Bloms, 262-268.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1989) "The spelling of Scottish place names as a linguistic resource: Stirling vs Dunfermline" in Lachlan MacKenzie and Richard Todd eds. In Other Words - Transcultural Studies in Philology, Translation and Lexicography Presented to Hans Heinrich Meier on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday, Dordrecht: Foris, 301-314.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1990) "Gaelic and Scots 1300-1600: some place-name evidence" in Derick Thomson ed., Gaelic and Scots in Harmony, Glasgow: Department of Celtic, University of Glasgow, 20-35.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1990) "Aberdeen: a toponymic key to the region, Northern Studies 27, 50-63.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1992) "The onomastic legacy of Gaelic in Scotland" in Barbara Hilliers and Jerry Hunter eds. Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium (May 1-3, 1992) 12, 1-15.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1993) "Names in the landscape of the Moray Firth" in W. D. H. Sellar ed. Moray: Province and People, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 253-262.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1993) "Scottish place-names as evidence for language change", Names 41, 306-313. Discusses Gaelic -ach > Scots -o; see also Nicolaisen (1996) and Ó Maolalaigh (1998).

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1994) "Viking place names in Scotland", NORNA-rapporter 54, 31-49.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1995) "Is there a Northwest Germanic toponymy? Some thoughts and a proposal" in Edith Marold and Christiane Zimmermann eds. Nordwestgermanisch, Berlin: de Gruyter, 103-114.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1996) "Gaelic -ach to Scots -o in Scottish place names", Scottish Gaelic Studies 17, 278-291. See also Ó Maolalaigh (1998).

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1996) "Patterns in the specifics of Scandinavian place names in Scotland", NORNA-rapporter 60, 373-381.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1999) "The earliest English place names in North East Scotland", Northern Scotland 18, 67-82

Ó Maolalaigh, Roibeard (1998) "Place-names as a resource for the historical linguist" in Simon Taylor ed. The Uses of Place Names, Edinburgh: Scottish Cultural Press, 12-53.

Oram, Richard (1995) "Scandinavian settlement in south-west Scotland with a special study of Bysbie" in Barbara Crawford ed., Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in their Historical Context, London/New York: Leicester University Press, 127-140.

Proudfoot, Edwina and Christopher Aliaga-Kelly (1995) "Place-names and other evidence for Anglian settlement in south-east Scotland", Landscape History 17, 17-26.

Proudfoot, Edwina and Christopher Aliaga-Kelly (1996) "Towards an interpretation of anomalous finds and place-names of Anglo-Saxon origin in Scotland", Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 9, 1-13.

Proudfoot, Edwina and Christopher Aliaga-Kelly (1997) "Aspects of settlement and territorial arrangements in South-east Scotland in the Late Prehistoric and Early Medieval periods", Medieval Archaeology 41, 33-50.

Room, Adrian (1983) A Concise Dictionary of Modern Place-Names in Great Britain and Ireland, Oxford University Press.

Sharp, L. W. (1927) "The Expansion of the English Language in Scotland", unpublished University of Cambridge PhD thesis. Copy in Edinburgh University Library, Special Collections.

Smith, Brian (1995) "Scandinavian place-names in Shetland with a study of the district of Whiteness" in Barbara Crawford ed., Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in their Historical Context, London/New York: Leicester University Press, 26-41. Evidence for original settlement types.

Taylor, Simon (1994) "Some early Scottish place-names and Queen Margaret", Scottish Language 13, 1-17.

Taylor, Simon (1994) "Babbet and bridin pudding or polyglot Fife in the Middle Ages", Nomina 17, 99-118.

Taylor, R. Simon (1995) "Settlement-Names in Fife", 2 vols., unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Taylor, Simon (1995) "The Scandinavians in Fife: the onomastic evidence" in Barbara Crawford ed. Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in their Historical Context, London/New York: Leicester University Press, 141-167.

Taylor, Simon (2000) "Place-names of Fife" in Donald Omand ed. The Fife Book Edinburgh: Birlinn, 205-220.

[Taylor, Simon] (2000) "Gowf an names", Scottish Place-Name News 8 (Spring, 2000), 6-7. News item reporting George Philp's interest in collecting names of golf holes.

Thomson, William (1995) "Orkney farm-names: a re-assessment of their chronology" in Barbara Crawford ed., Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in their Historical Context, London/New York: Leicester University Press, 42-62.

Watson, William (1926, 1993) The History of the Celtic Place-names of Scotland, Edinburgh: Birlinn. Originally published Edinburgh: William Blackwood & Sons.

Waugh, Doreen (1985) "A detailed account of some Caithness place-names", Scottish Language 4, 37-90.

Waugh, Doreen (1986) "The transition from Gaelic to Scots or Scottish-English in Caithness place-names", Scottish Language 5, 147-155.

Waugh, Doreen (1991) "Shetland place-names", Nomina 13 (1989/90, published 1991), 61-70.

Waugh, Doreen (1995) "Settlement names in Caithness with particular reference to Reay Parish" in Barbara Crawford ed., Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in their Historical Context, London/New York: Leicester University Press, 64-79.

Waugh, Doreen (1996) "Sand, Innersand and Garderhouse: place-names in use" in in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 242-254.

Waugh, Doreen (1998) "Settlement names in the South-West: Dumfries and Galloway", Scottish Language 17, 40-54.

Will, C. P. (1963) Place Names of North-East Angus, Arbroath: Herald Press.

Williamson, May (1943) "Non-Celtic Place-Names of the Scottish Border Counties", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Williamson, May (1978) "Place names of the Scottish Borders", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 6, 44-53.

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4b. Personal Names

Black, George (1946) The Surnames of Scotland. Their Origin, Meaning and History New York: New York Public Library. Not always accurate in identifying continental origins.

Cramond, W. (1886) "To-names in Banffshire and Aberdeenshire a century ago", Northern Notes and Queries 1:4, 62.

Dorian, Nancy (1970) "A substitute name-system in the Scottish Highlands", American Anthropologist 72, 303-319. The practice of using by-names is passing over into English as Gaelic dies in East Sutherland.

Dorian, Nancy (1970) "East Sutherland by-naming", Scottish Studies 14, 59-65. The practice of using by-names is passing over into English as Gaelic dies in East Sutherland.

H., A. E. H. C. (1890) "Peculiar use of surnames", Northern Notes and Queries (The Scottish Antiquary) 4:13, 29.

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5a. Lexicography: Reference Works

Popular and school dictionaries are not fully listed. See the publications of Scottish Language Dictionaries (formerly the Scottish National Dictionary Association) www.sldl.org.uk.

[Adams, Diana et al. eds.] (1995, 1996) Collins Gem Scots Dictionary, Glasgow: HarperCollins. Pocket dictionary - selection is an implicit statement about currency. Re-issued in larger format as Collins Pocket Scots Dictionary (1996).

Chambers, Robert (1841) Popular Rhymes of Scotland, Edinburgh and London: W. & R. Chambers, 3rd edition.

Cheviot, Andrew (1896) Proverbs, Proverbial Expressions and Popular Rhymes of Scotland, Paisley and London: Alex Gardner

* The Concise English-Scots Dictionary (1993) eds. Iseabail Macleod and Pauline Cairns, Edinburgh: Chambers.

* The Concise Scots Dictionary (1985) ed.-in-chief Mairi Robinson, Aberdeen University Press, now published Edinburgh: Chambers.

* A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (1937-2002) eds. William Craigie et al. 12 vols, Oxford University Press.

The English Dialect Dictionary (1898-1905) ed. Joseph Wright, 6 vols., Oxford University Press. Includes Scots. Includes Northern Ireland, mainly from William Patterson (1880) A Glossary of Words in Use in the Counties of Antrim and Down, London: English Dialect Society.

Gibb, Andrew Dewar, revised A. G. M. Duncan (1946, 1982) Students' Glossary of Scottish Legal Terms, Edinburgh: W. Green & Son.

Macleod, Iseabail (1986) The Pocket Guide to Scottish Words, Glasgow: Richard Drew. Selection is an implicit statement about currency and cultural significance.

Pride, Glen (1975, revised 1996) Dictionary of Scottish Building, Edinburgh: The Rutland Press. Originally published as Glossary of Scottish Building Terms, Glasgow: Scottish Civic Trust.

The Scots School Dictionary. Scots-English, English-Scots (1996) eds. Iseabail Macleod and Pauline Cairns, Edinburgh: Chambers.

The Scots Thesaurus (1990) eds. Iseabail Macleod et al., Aberdeen University Press. Now published Edinburgh: Chambers.

* The Scottish National Dictionary eds. William Grant et al., 10 volumes, 1931-1975. Now published Edinburgh: Chambers.

Stevenson, James A. C. (1989, 1998) A Dictionary of Scots Words and Phrases in Current Use. Orignally published as Scoor-oot. A Dictionary of Scots Words and Phrases in Current Use, London: Athlone. SAME PUBLISHER?

Watt, Robert (1989) A Glossary of Scottish Dialect Fish and Trade Names, Scottish Fisheries Information Pamphlet 17, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland, Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen.

* Whiting, B. J. (1949,1951) "Proverbs and proverbial sayings from Scottish writings before 1600", Mediaeval Studies 11, 123-205; 12, 87-164.

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5b. Lexicography: Dialect Glossaries

Braidwood, John (1965,1966,1971,1978,1987) "Local bird names in Ulster - a glossary", Ulster Folklife 11, 98-135; 12, 104-107; 17, 81-84; 24, 83-87; 33, 83-85.

Buchan, Peter and David Toulmin (1989) Buchan Claik. The Saut and the Glaur o't. A Compendium of Words and Phrases from the North-East of Scotland, Edinburgh: Gordon Wright.

Byers, John (1904) Sayings, Proverbs, and Humour of Ulster, Belfast.

Edmonston, Thomas (1866) An Etymological Glossary of the Shetland and Orkney Dialect, Publications of the Philological Society.

Eunson, J. (1976) Words, Phrases and Recollections from Fair Isle, Lerwick: PUBLISHER.

Fenton, Alexander (1959) "Proverbs and sayings of the Auchterless and Turriff area of Aberdeenshire", Scottish Studies 3:1, 39-71.

Fenton, Alexander (1966) Review of A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, Parts 19-21, Scottish Studies 10:2, 198-205.

Fenton, Alexander (1974) "Lexicography and historical interpretation" in G. W. S. Barrow ed. The Scottish Tradition: Essays in Honours of R. G. Cant, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 243-258.

Fenton, Alexander (1994) "Scottish lexicography" in R. Asher and J. M. Y. Simpson eds. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol.7, London: Pergamon, 3694-3697.

Fenton, James (1995, 2000) The Hamely Tongue. A Personal Record of Ulster-Scots in County Antrim, 2nd edn. [no place of publication]: Ullans Press. Originally published Newtonards: Ulster Scots Academic Press. An annotated glossary showing present day currency.

Geddes, J. (?1976) Caithness Dialect: A Selection of Old Caithness Words and Expressions, Stroud: PUBLISHER.

Graham, John (1979) The Shetland Dictionary, Stornoway: Thule.

Gregor, Walter (1866) The Dialect of Banffshire with a Glossary of Words not in Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, London: The Philological Society.

Gregson, Michael and Kay Deas (DATE? C.1990) The Crack and the Cant, Inverness: Gadgie Publications. An unfunny comic dictionary of Highland English.

Jakobsen, Jakob (1921,1928) Etymologisk Ordbog over det Norrøne Sprog på Shetland. Translated as An Etymological Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland, 2 volumes, London: David Nutt, reprinted New York: AMS Press, n.d.

Kerr, R. D. ed. ([1979]) A Glossary of Mining Terms Used in Fife, Kirkcaldy College of Technology for Fife Colleges.

Kynoch, Douglas (1996) A Doric Dictionary. Two-way Lexicon of North-East Scots. Doric-English, English-Doric, Edinburgh: Scottish Cultural Press.

Kynoch, Douglas (1997) Doric Proverbs and Sayings, Edinburgh: Scottish Cultural Press.

Lamb, Gregor (1988) Orkney Wordbook. A Dictionary of the Dialect of Orkney, Birsay: Byrgisey.

Lutton, William, ed. Francis Biggar (1923, 1976) Montiaghisms: Ulster Dialect Words and Phrases, Belfast: Linen Hall Library.

Macafee, Caroline ed. (1996) A Concise Ulster Dictionary, Oxford University Press.

McConnell, Seamus (1989) Talk of the Town: A Derry Phrase Book, Londonderry: Guildhall Press.

McConnell, Seamus (1990) The Folly Up. Talk of the Town 2, Londonderry: Guildhall Press.

MacInnes, L. (1936) The Dialect of South Kintyre, PUBLISHER, PLACE OF PUBLICATION.

McIntyre, Rae ed. (1990) Some Handlin': The Dialect Heritage of North Ulster, Limavady: North-West Books.

Mackie, Albert (1984) The Illustrated Glasgow Glossary, Belfast: Blackstaff.

MacTaggart, John (1824) The Scottish Gallovidian Encyclopedia, PUBLISHER, PLACE OF PUBLICATION.

Marshall, J. J. (1904, 1905, 1906) "The dialect of Ulster", Ulster Journal of Archaeology 10, 121-130; 11, 64-70, 122-125, 175-179; 12, 18-21.

Marwick, Hugh (1929, 1992) The Orkney Norn, Dunfermline: W. I. A. Murray. Originally published Oxford University Press.

Mason, Peter (1987) C'mon Geese yer Patter. The Glasgow and West of Scotland Phrase Book, Port Glasgow: Seanachaidh Presentations.

McBride, Doreen (1993) Speakin' Norn Iron as She Shud be Spoke. A Guide to the Language Spoken in the North of Ireland, Northern Ireland: Adare Press.

Montgomery, May and Francis (1993) The Barnish County Antrim Dialect Dictionary. Local Sayings, Words and Phrases etc., privately published: County Antrim.

Munro, Michael (1985 and 1988, 1996) The Complete Patter, Edinburgh: Canongate. Incorporating The Patter. A Guide to Current Glasgow Usage, originally published by Glasgow District Libraries and The Patter. Another Blast, originally published Edinburgh: Canongate.

Murray, Mary (1982) In my Ain words. An East Neuk Vocabulary, Anstruther: Scottish Fisheries Museum.

O'Kane, William ed. (1991) You Don't Say: The Tyrone Crystal Book of Ulster Dialect, Dungannon: Irish World.

Patterson, William (1880) A Glossary of Words in Use in the Counties of Antrim and Down, London: English Dialect Society. The major source of Ulster Scots material in The English Dialect Dictionary.

Pepper, John [Fred Gamble] (1981) John Pepper's Ulster-English Dictionary, Belfast: Appletree Press.

Riach, W. A. D. (1988) A Galloway Glossary, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 7.

Robertson, T. (1970) "Extracts from a Shetland Dictionary under preparation", The New Shetlander 92, 35-36; 93, 28.

Robertson, T. (1974) "Shetland dialect", The New Shetlander 107, 8-10.

Ross, J. (1972) "A selection of Caithness dialect words" in Donald Omand ed. The Caithness Book, Inverness: Highland Printers Ltd., 241-260.

Simmons, D. A. (n.d.) A List of Peculiar Words and Phrases Formerly in Common Use in the County Armagh together with Expressions at one Time Current in South Donegal, Dublin: Freemans Journal. Unfortunately the two sources are mixed together.

Todd, Loreto (1990) Words Apart. A Dictionary of Northern Ireland English, Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe. Etymologies to be treated with caution - she emphasises similarities with Irish (whether borrowing from or into Irish or genetic), at the expense of derivations from Scots and English dialects.

Traynor, Michael (1953) The English Dialect of Donegal. A Glossary, Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.

Watson, George (1923) The Roxburghshire Word-Book, Cambridge University Press.

Wilson, William Morrice (1993) Speak o' the North-East, NES Publications [privately published].

Wilson, William Morrice (1995) Speak o' the North-East. Index/Glossary, NES Publications [privately published].

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5c. Lexicography: Discussions

Aitken, A. J. (1964) "Completing the record of Scots", Scottish Studies 8, 129-140.

Aitken, A. J. (1971) "Historical dictionaries and the computer" in R. A. Wisbey ed. The Computer in Literary and Linguistic Research, Cambridge University Press, 3-17.

Aitken, A. J. (1973) "Sense-analysis for a historical dictionary" in H. Scholler and J. Reidy, eds. Lexicography and Dialect Geography: Festgabe for Hans Kurath, Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, new series 9, 5-16. Also "L'analyse des sens pour un dictionnaire historique" in Tavola Rotonda sui Grandi Lessici Storici/Table Ronde sur les Grands Dictionnaires Historique, Florence, 3-5 maggio 1971, Firenze: Academia della Crusca (1973), 91-95.

Aitken, A. J. (1975) "The SND: Three comments on the occasion of its completion", Scottish Review 1, 17-19.

Aitken, A. J. (1980) "On some deficiencies in our Scottish dictionaries" in W. Pijnenburg and F. de Tollenaere eds. Proceedings of the Second International Round Table Conference on Historical Lexicography, Dordrecht: Foris, 33-56.

Aitken, A. J. (1981) "DOST: How we make it and what's in it" in Roderick Lyall and Felicity Riddy, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Scottish Language and Literature (Medieval and Renaissance) University of Stirling 2-7 July 1981, University of Stirling and University of Glasgow, 33-51.

Aitken, A. J. (1986) "The pronunciation entries for the CSD" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 35-46.

Aitken, A. J. (1987) "The period dictionaries" in R. W. Burchfield ed. Studies in Lexicography, Oxford University Press, 94-116.

Aitken, A. J. (1987) "The extinction of Scotland in popular dictionaries of English?" in Richard Bailey ed. Dictionaries of English Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, PAGE NOS.

Aitken, A. J. (1988) "The lexicography of Scots: the current position" in Karl Hyldgaard-Jensen and Arne Zettersten eds. Symposium on Lexicography III. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Lexicography, May 14-16, 1986, University of Copenhagen. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 323-333.

Aitken, A. J. (1989) "The lexicography of Scots two hundred years since: Ruddiman and his successors" in J. Lachlan Mackenzie and Richard Todd eds. In Other Words. Transcultural Studies in Philology, Translation, and Lexicology Presented to Hans Heinrich Meier on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday, Dordrecht: Foris, 235-245.

Aitken, A. J. (1995/96) "James Murray: Master of Scots", Review of Scottish Culture 9, 14-34.

Bawcutt, Priscilla (1987) "Dunbar: new light on some old words" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 83-95.

Braidwood, John (1965) "Towards an Ulster dialect dictionary", Ulster Dialect Archive Bulletin 4, 3-14. Partly a review of the Ulster material in The Scottish National Dictionary.

Breeze, Andrew (1997) "Etymological notes on Kirkcaldy, Jocteleg 'Knife', Kiaugh 'Trouble', Striffen 'Membrane' and Cow 'Hobgoblin'", Scottish Language 16, 97-110.

Bruford, Alan (1988) "Is tartan a Gaelic word?" in Derick Thomson ed. Gaelic and Scots in Harmony: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Languages of Scotland (University of Glasgow, 1988), Department of Celtic, University of Glasgow, 57-71.

Craigie, William (1936) "The value of the period dictionaries", Transactions of the Philological Society, 53-62. See pp.56-59 for a comparison between DOST and OED in the letter C.

Dareau, Marace (1998) "DOST towards the Millennium", Scottish Language 17, 1-9.

Dareau, Margaret (2001) "The Scots/Gaelic interface: a new perspective" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language Links. The Languages of Scotland and Ireland Belfast: Queen's University, 237-256.

Dossena, Marina (1999/2000) "'Sense, Shortness and Salt': Ideas of Improvement in 18th- and 19th-Century Collections of Scottish Proverbs", Review of Scottish Culture, 12, 93-106.

Fenton, Alexander (1966) Review of A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, Parts 19-21, Scottish Studies 10:2, 198-205.

Fenton, Alexander (1973) The Various Names of Shetland, Edinburgh: Blackwood.

Fenton, Alexander (1974) "Lexicography and historical interpretation" in G. W. S. Barrow ed. The Scottish Tradition: Essays in Honours of R. G. Cant, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 243-258.

Fenton, Alexander (1994) "Scottish lexicography" in R. Asher and J. M. Y. Simpson eds. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol.7, London: Pergamon, 3694-3697.

Forte, A. D. M. (1998-99) "'Kenning be kenning and course be course'. Alexander Lindsay's Rutter and the problematics of navigation in fifteenth and sixteenth century Scotland", Review of Scottish Culture 11, 32-45.

Grønneberg, Roy (1981) Jakobsen and Shetland, Lerwick: PUBLISHER.

Hamilton, Anne Marie (1998) "The endurance of Scots in the United States", Scottish Language 17, 108-118.

Hanham, Alison (1968) "The Scottish Hecate: a wild witch chase", Scottish Studies 13, 59-64. On the word Nicneven.

Houwen, Luuk (1987) "Additions, antedatings and corrections to DOST and OED", Scottish Language 6, 21-29.

Kay, Christian (1994) "A lexical view of two societies: a comparison of The Scots Thesaurus and A Thesaurus of Old English" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 41-47.

Macafee, Caroline (1990) "The Scots Thesaurus: an index to the dictionary record", Review of Scottish Culture 6, 85-86.

Macafee, Caroline (1991/92) "Acumsinery: Is it too late to collect traditional dialect?", Folk Life 30, 71-77.

MacDonald, Roderick (1994) "A dictionary ramble", Scottish Language13, 82-87. On skalk, scaulin pyock, skail, polk breik.

McIntosh, Angus (1987) "The Middle English and Scots equivalents of hence, thence and whence: some word-geographical facts, principles and problems" in Macafee and Macleod, eds., 106-15.

Macleod, Iseabail (1993) "The saur o the bacon" Fortnight 318, special supplement Talking Scots, April 1993, 27-28.

Macleod, Iseabail (1993) "Research in progress: some problems in Scottish lexicography", English World-Wide 14:1, 115-128.

Macleod, Iseabail (1998) "Scots dictionaries present and future", Scottish Language 17, 10-15.

Macleod, Iseabail (1999-2000) "The Scottish National Dictionary Association at the turn of the century", Review of Scottish Culture 12, 127-128.

Meier, Hans (1961), review of The Scottish National Dictionary IV:III,IV Galti-Hair (1955-6), V:I-III Hair-Kempy (1957-60), English Studies 42:4, 1-7.

Meier, H. H. (1969) "Lexicography as applied linguistics", English Studies 50, 141-151. Takes examples from DOST and OED.

Meier, H. H. (1973) Review of The Scottish National Dictionary VI:III to IX:II, English Studies 54:3, 306-308. Comments on the omission of revival vocabulary.

Millar, Robert McColl (1994) "A possible etymology for Scots smirr ‘traces of rain in the wind’", Notes and Queries new series 41:3 (September 1994), 312-314.

Millar, Robert McColl (1999) "Some geographic and cultural patterns in the lexical/semantic structure of Scots", Northern Scotland 18, 55-65. Some of the discussion is inconsistent with the data given.

Montgomery, Michael (1993) "The lexicography of Hiberno-English", Irish Studies Working Papers 93:3, 19-35.

Murison, David (1987) "Scottish lexicography" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 17-24.

Murison, David (1972) "The Scottish National Dictionary", University of Edinburgh Journal 25:4, 305-309.

Nieuwenhuis, P. (1985) "Diminutives", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis. On -ie.

Ó Baoill, Colm (1991) "Borrowing between Scots and Gaelic: some lessons to be learned from the SND", Scottish Language 10, 9-17.

Parkinson, David (1991) "Holtis hair: tracking a phrase through Middle Scots poetry", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 309-318.

Pollner, Clausdirk (1994) "The ugly sister - Scots words in Early Modern English dictionaries" in Dieter Kastovšky Studies in Early Modern English Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 289-299.

Robinson, Mairi (1987) "CSD as a tool for linguistic research" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 59-72.

Robinson, Mairi (1986) "The Concise Scots Dictionary" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 19-34.

Rorie, David (late 1920s?, 1994) "On Scottish folk-medicine. IX: Scottish proverbs bearing on medicine" in David Buchan ed. Folk Tradition and Folk Medicine in Scotland. The Writings of David Rorie, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 113-120. Originally published Caledonian Medical Journal.

Rorie, David (1935, 1994) "Some old Scottish rhyming riddles" in David Buchan ed. Folk Tradition and Folk Medicine in Scotland. The Writings of David Rorie, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 170-176. Original published Scots Magazine 23 (1935), 148-154.

Ross, Alan S. C. (1968) "'You' in the North", Notes and Queries, 323-324.

Scheibe, Regina (1996) A Catalogue of Amphibians and Reptiles in Older Scots Literature Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Stevenson, J. A. C. et al. (1987) "A re-editing of GIF" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 25-58.

Westergaard, Elizabeth (1919) "Verbal forms in Middle Scotch", Anglia 43, 95-97.

Westergaard, Elizabeth (1922) "Masked Germanic suffixes in Lowland Scotch", Anglia 46, 344-346

Westergaard, Elizabeth (1924) Studies in Prefixes and Suffixes in Middle Scottish London: Oxford University Press.

Westergaard, Elisabeth (1937) "Gaelic influence on Lowland Scottish", Anglia 61, 93-97. Largely a review of the early volumes of DOST and SND.

Wyllie, J. M. (1963) "Sir William Craigie 1867-1957", Proceedings of the British Academy 47, 273-291.

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6. Sources of the Vocabulary

See also modlexis.

Aitken, A. J. ([1954]) "Sources of the vocabulary of Older Scots", unpublished paper.

Barrow, Geoffrey W. S. (1989) "The lost Gaidhealtachd of medieval Scotland" in William Gillies ed. Gaelic and Scotland: Alba agus a' Ghaidhlig Edinburgh University Press, 67-88. Also in Geoffrey Barrow Scotland and its Neighbours in the Middle Ages London: Hambledon (1992). (I have not checked whether these are identical.)

Dewey, Thomas B. (1973) "The Vocabulary of Gavin Douglas", unpublished University of California PhD thesis.

Ellenberger, Bengt (1977) The Latin Element in the Vocabulary of the Earlier Makars Henryson and Dunbar, Lund Studies in English 51, Lund.

Flom, George (1900, 1966) Scandinavian Influence on Southern Lowland Scotch. A Contribution to the Study of the Linguistic Relations of English and Scandinavian New York: AMS Press. Originally New York: Columbia University Press. The evidence is drawn from Lowland Scots generally (as opposed to Caithness, Orkney and Shetland).

Francisque, Michel (1882) A Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language with a View of Illustrating the Rise and Progress of Civilisation in Scotland, Edinburgh & London. Interesting for its arrangement of the vocabulary into semantic fields, but the etymologies are untrustworthy.

Görlach, Manfred (1987, 1990) "Lexical loss and lexical survival: the case of Scots and English", Scottish Language 6, 1-20. Reprinted in Manfred Görlach Studies in the History of the English Language, Heidelberg: Winter, 123-143. Slight, and misconceived in suggesting that Anglo-Norman influence is lacking in Scots, but gives an interesting list of 100 words derived from Old English still surviving in Modern Scots.

Görlach, Manfred (2000) "Rhyming slang world-wide: homegrown or imported?", English World-Wide 21:1, 1-24.

Henderson, Hamish (1993) "The oral tradition" in Paul H. Scott ed. Scotland: A Concise Cultural History Edinburgh: Mainstream, 159-171. Some comments on the use of cant in Stanley Robertson's works.

* Jumpertz-Schwab, Cornelia (1998) The Development of the Scots Lexicon and Syntax in the 16th Century under the Influence of Translations from Latin Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

* Kries, Susanne (1999) "Die Lexicalischen Reflexe skandinavischen Einflusses im älteren Schottisch und im Mittelschottischen", Freien Universität Berlin PhD thesis, published on microfiche.

* Macafee, Caroline and Colm Ó Baoill (1997) "Why Scots is not a Celtic English" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 245-286.

* Macafee, Caroline (1997) "Older Scots lexis" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 182-212. Revised in Caroline Macafee, incorporating material by the late A. J. Aitken "A history of Scots to 1700" in A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue vol.12 (2002), Oxford University Press, xxi-clvi.

* Macafee, Caroline and Alan Anderson (1997) "A random sample of Older Scots lexis", Transactions of the Philological Society 95:2, 247-278.

McClure, J. Derrick (1986,1995) "What Scots owes to Gaelic" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 68-85. Originally published Scottish Language 5, 85-98.

MacQueen, J. (1973) "The Gaelic speakers of Galloway and Carrick", Scottish Studies 17:1, 17-33.

Melchers, Gunnel (1980) "The Norn element in Shetland dialect today - a case of 'never-accepted' language death" in Eva Ejerhéd and Inger Henrysson eds. Tvåspråkighet. Föredrag från tredje Nordiska Tvåspråkighetsymposiet, 4-5 juni 1980, Umeå universitet, 254-261. PUBLICATION DETAILS

Melchers, Gunnel (1987) "On the Low German and Dutch element in Shetland dialect" in P. Sture Ureland ed. Sprachkontakt in der Hanse. Aspekte des Sprachausgleichs im Ostsee- und Nordseeraum. Akten des 7. Internationalen Symposions über Sprachkontakt in Europa, Lübeck 1986, Tübingen, Max Niemeyer, 295-316.

Melchers, Gunnel (1983) "Norn. The Scandinavian Element in Shetland Dialect. Report 1: a Presentation of the Project", Department of English, University of Stockholm.

Melchers, Gunnel (1991) "Norn-Scots: a complicated language contact situation in Shetland" in P. Sture Ureland and George Broderick eds. Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 461-477.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1989) "Variation analysis and diachronic studies of lexical borrowing" in Caie et al. eds Proceedings from the Fourth Nordic Conference for English Studies, Department of English, University of Copenhagen, vol.I, 87-98. Also in Anneli Meurman-Solin Variation and Change in Early Scots Prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1993) Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 65, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 227-235.

Moessner, Lilo (1994) "Besyde Latyn our langage is imperfite. The contribution of Gavin Douglas to the development of the Scots lexicon" in Horst Drescher and Pierre Morère eds. Scottish Studies: Proceedings of the Scottish Workshop of the ESSE Conference, Bordeaux 1993. GDR Études Écossaises, Université Stendhal, Grenoble and Scottish Studies Centre, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Germersheim, 5-17.

Murison, David (1964) "The Scots tongue: the folk-speech", Folklore 75, 37-47.

* Murison, David (1971) "The Dutch element in the vocabulary of Scots" in A. J. Aitken et al. eds. Edinburgh Studies in English and Scots, London: Longman, 159-176.

Murison, David (1979) "Norse influence on Scots", Lallans 13, 31-34.

Nässén, Greger (1983) "The Scandinavian Element in the Orkney and Shetland Dialects. Report 2: A Study of 102 words of Old Norse origin in Insular Scots", Department of English, University of Stockholm.

Nässén, Greger (1989) "Norn. The Scandinavian element in Shetland dialect" Report 3 "Norn weather words. 323 meteorological terms in Jakobsen's dictionary and their extent in present-day Shetland dialect", Department of English, Stockholm University.

Nichols, P. H. (1931) "William Dunbar as a Scottish Lydgatean", Publications of the Modern Languages Association 46, 214-24.

Ó Baoill, Colm (1991) "Borrowing between Scots and Gaelic: some lessons to be learned from the SND", Scottish Language 10, 9-17.

Ó Baoill, Colm (1997) "The Scots-Gaelic interface" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 551-568.

Odlin, Terence (1995) "Causation in language contact: a devilish problem" Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College Dublin, Occasional Papers 41. Argues that devil negation reached Hiberno-English from Scots, which in turn is influenced by Scottish Gaelic.

Odlin, Terence (1996) "'Sorrow penny yee payed for my drink': taboo, euphemism and a phantom substrate" Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College Dublin, Occasional Papers 43. Argues that sorrow negation, like devil negation, reached Hiberno-English from Scots, which in turn is influenced by Scottish Gaelic.

Odlin, Terence (1998) "On the affective and cognitive bases of language transfer" in W. R. Cooper ed. Compare or Contrast? Current Issues in Cross-Language Research Tampere English Studies 6, 81-106. Includes a summary of the sorrow and devil negation arguments given fully in the two preceeding items.

Pódör, Dóra (1995/1996) "The phonology of Scottish Gaelic loanwords in Lowland Scots", Scottish Language 14/15, 174-189.

Ritchie, R. (1939) "Early instances of French loan words in Scots and English" in EDITOR Studies in French Language and Medieval Literature Presented to M. Pope, Manchester: PUBLISHER, 315-319.

Sandred, Karl Inge (1987) "Measurement by the hand in Lowland Scots: a study of four Scandinavian loanwords" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 227-235.

Smith, Jeremy (1994) "Norse in Scotland", Scottish Language 13, 18-33.

Smith, Jeremy (1996) An Historical Study of English. Function, Form and Change London/New York: Routledge. See chapter 8 on Norse in Scotland.

Strickland, Eleanor C. (1971) "The Poetic Diction of William Dunbar", unpublished Arizona State University PhD thesis.

Thomson, R. L. "Loanwords, Gaelic, in English" in Derick Thomson ed. The Companion to Gaelic Scotland Oxford: Blackwell, 153-154.

Thorson, Per (1936) Anglo-Norse Studies. An Inquiry into the Scandinavian Elements in the Modern English Dialects, Part I. Amsterdam: N. V. Swets en Zeitlinger. Data from EDD, and therefore includes Scots.

Thun, Nils (1963) "Reduplicative Words in English. A Study of Formations of the Types Tick-tick, Hurly-burly and Shilly-shally", privately published, University of Uppsala PhD thesis.

Westergaard, Elisabeth (1937) "Gaelic influence on Lowland Scottish", Anglia 61, 93-97.

Zettersten, Arne (1979) "On the aureate diction of William Dunbar" in M. Chesnutt et al eds. Essays Presented to Knud Schibsbye, Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, PAGE NUMBERS

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7. Older Scots: General

Agutter, Alex (1988) "Middle Scots as a literary language" in R. D. S. Jack ed. The History of Scottish Literature Vol. 1 Origins to 1660 (Mediaeval and Renaissance), Aberdeen University Press, 13-26.

Boffey, Julia and A. S. G. Edwards (2000) "Bodleian MS Arch. Selden. B. 24 and the 'Scotticization' of Middle English verse" in Thomas Prendergast and Barbara Kline eds. Rewriting Chaucer. Culture, Authority and the Idea of the Authentic Text, 1400-1602 Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 166-185. Very valuable, though linguistically naïve - both orthographic and phonological features are described as orthographic.

Craigie, James (1940) "Language" in Henry Meikle, James Craigie and John Purves eds. The Works of William Fowler vol.3, Scottish Text Society, li-lxxix.

Craigie, William (1925) "The earliest records of the Scottish tongue", Scottish Historical Review 22, 61-7.

Craigie, William (1935) "Older Scottish and English: A study in contrasts", Transactions of the Philological Society 1-15.

Cusack, Bridgit (1998) Everyday English 1500-1700. A Reader Edinburgh University Press. Includes Scots texts.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1981) "An attempt at the study of Early Scots in the 14th century", Hungarian Studies in English 14, 109-114.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1993) "Early Scots: its origin and development" in Wolfgang Viereck ed. Proceedings of the International Congress of Dialectologists, Bamberg 1990 vol.II Historical Dialectology and Linguistic Change Stuttgart: Steiner, 132-140.

* Kuipers, Cornelius (1964) Quintin Kennedy: Two Eucharistic Tracts, University of Nijmegen. The introduction is an excellent description of Scots in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Laing, Margaret (1994) "The linguistic analysis of medieval vernacular texts: two projects at Edinburgh" in Merja Kytö et al. eds. Corpora across the Centuries: Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on English Diachronic Corpora, St Catharine's College Cambridge, 25-27 March 1993, Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi, 121-141.

Ledesma, M. Nieves Rodríguez (1996) "Authorship of The Complaynt of Scotland", Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 32/33, 77-91.

* Macafee, Caroline, incorporating material by the late A. J. Aitken (2002) "A history of Scots to 1700" in A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue vol.12, Oxford University Press, xxi-clvi.

McKinlay, Rev. R. (1914) "The speech of Scotland prior to the eighteenth century, with special reference to northern dialect", Transactions of the Buchan Club, 3-16.

MacRae, G. D. (1975) "An Edition of Nine Early Scots Texts from 1379 to 1402", unpublished University of Edinburgh MA dissertation.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1989) "The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots" in J. Derrick McClure and Michael Spiller eds. Bryght Lanternis: Essays on the Language of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, Aberdeen University Press, 451-458. Also in Anneli Meurman-Solin Variation and Change in Early Scots Prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1993) Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 65, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 218-226.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1993) "Older Scots" in Matti Rissanen et al. eds. Early English in the Computer Age: Explorations through the Helsinki Corpus Topics in English Linguistics 11, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 75-82. Introduction to the Helsinki Scots corpus.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1994) "The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots" in Merja Kytö et al. eds. Corpora across the Centuries: Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on English Diachronic Corpora, St Catharine's College Cambridge, 25-27 March 1993, Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi, 53-63.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1995) "A new tool: The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1450-1700)", ICAME [International Computer Archive of Modern English] Journal: Computers in English Linguistics 19, 49-62.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1995) The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots, Oxford Text Archive/Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities. As ASCII files/CDRom.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1997) "Text profiles in the study of language variation and change" in Raymond Hickey et al. eds. Tracing the Trail of Time Proceedings from the Diachronic Corpora Workshop, Toronto, May 1995, 199-214.

Proctor, J. W. (1966) "A Description of the Fifteenth Century Scots Dialect of Robert Henryson", unpublished University of Missouri PhD thesis.

Smith, G. Gregory (1902) Specimens of Middle Scots, Edinburgh/London: Wm. Blackwood and Sons.

Slater, Jane (1952) "An Edition of Early Scots Texts from the Beginnings to 1410", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

* van Buuren, Catherine ed. (1982) The Buke of the Sevyne Sagis: A Middle Scots Version of the Seven Sages of Rome. Edited from the Asloan Manuscript (NLS Acc. 4233), c. 1515, Leiden University Press. The introduction is an excellent description of late fifteenth century Scots, including an exhaustive treatment of datable features.

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8. Older Scots: Orthography and Paleography

See also oscregional and anglic. For Modern Scots orthography, see modorthog and synthetic.

Agutter, Alex (1987) "A taxonomy of Older Scots orthography" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language Presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 75-82.

Agutter, Alex (1988) "Standardisation in Middle Scots", Scottish Language 7, 1-8.

Agutter, Alex (1989) "Standardisation and restandardisation in Middle Scots" in V. Law et al. eds. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on English Historical Linguistics 1987, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1-11.

* Aitken, A. J. (1971) "Variation and variety in written Middle Scots" in A. J. Aitken et al. eds. Edinburgh Studies in English and Scots, London: Longman, 177-209. Revised in Caroline Macafee, incorporating material by the late A. J. Aitken "A history of Scots to 1700" in A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue vol.12 (2002), Oxford University Press, xxi-clvi.

* Houwen, L. A. J. R. ed. (1990) The Sex Werkdays and Agis. An Edition of a Late Medieval Scots Universal History from the Asloan Manuscript Groningen: Egbert Forsten. Very useful short account of editorial method, and scribal abbreviations and superscript letters and numbers.

Kelly, F. M. (1957) "The Origin of the Use of I as a Sign of Length in Middle Scots" unpublished Columbia University PhD thesis.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1981) "Some problems of Early Scots", Annales Universitatis Scientiarum Budapestinensis de Rolando Eö tvö s Nominatae, Sectio Linguistica 12, 207-213. Review of the evidence on the origin of <i> digraphs.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1986) "What happened to Old French /ai/ in Britain?" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang., 103-113.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1989) "The sources of the <i> digraphs: the place-name evidence" in J. Derrick McClure and Michael Spiller eds. Bryght lanternis: Essays on the Language and Literature of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, Aberdeen University Press, 442-50.

* Kniezsa, Veronika (1997) "The origins of Scots orthography" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 24-46.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1997) "Alexander Hume: Of the Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue", Scottish Language 16, 52-62.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1991) "Variation and variety in Middle Scots reconsidered: A test study of the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 38-49. Also in Anneli Meurman-Solin Variation and Change in Early Scots Prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1993) Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 65, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 236-245.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (2001) "Women as informants in the reconstruction of geographically and socioculturally conditioned language variation and change in 16th and 17th century Scots", Scottish Language, 20-46.

Mohr, Volker (1990) "Esc /a:/ and /ai/ reconsidered" unpublished dissertation, Anglistisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg.

* Scottish Records Association [Alison Rosie] (1994) Scottish Handwriting 1500-1700. A Self-help Pack (Edinburgh: Scottish Record Office).

* Simpson, Grant G. (1973) Scottish Handwriting 1150-1650, Edinburgh: Bratton Publishing.

 Williamson, Keith (2001) "Spatio-temporal aspects of Older Scots texts", Scottish Language 20, 1-19.

 

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9. Older Scots: Phonology

References to some further nineteenth and earlier twentieth century German work, not included in Woolley's bibliography, can be found in A. J. Aitken "Progress in Older Scots philology", Studies in Scottish Literature 26 (1991), 19-37 and in Richard Jordan, translated and revised by Eugene Crook, Handbook of Middle English Grammar: Phonology, The Hague: Mouton, 1974.

* Aitken, A. J. (1977) "How to pronounce Older Scots" in A. J. Aitken et al. eds. Bards and Makars: Scottish Language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance, Glasgow University Press, 1-21. Partially revised and incorporated in Caroline Macafee (forthcoming) "The phonology of Older Scots" in John Corbett et al. eds. The Edinburgh Student Companion to Scots Edinburgh University Press.

Aitken, A. J. ([1996]) The Pronunciation of Older Scots. Notes and Tables to Accompany the Audio Cassette (SSC 122) "How to Pronounce Older Scots" Glasgow: Scotsoun.

Britton, D. (1991) "On ME she/sho: a Scots solution to an English problem", Nowele [North-Western European Language Evolution]17, 3-51.

* Dieth, Eugen (1932) A Grammar of the Buchan Dialect, Cambridge University Press. Still, with Zai (1942), the best account of the philology of Scots, though tied to the North-East dialect for the modern reflexes.

Gburek, Hubert (1986) "Changes in the structure of the English verb system: evidence from Scots" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 115-123. Early evidence for Aitken's Law (the Scottish Vowel Length Rule).

* Girvan, R. ed. (1939) Ratis Raving and Other Early Scots Poems on Morals, Scottish Text Society. Introduction includes important points about dating.

Johnston, Paul (1997) "Older Scots phonology and its regional variation" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 47-111. The (page!) references to Robinson (1985) are in fact to Aitken's pronunciation entries in The Concise Scots Dictionary.

Kohler, K. J. (1964) "Aspects of the History of English Pronunciation in Scotland", unpublished Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Kohler, K. J. (1967) "Aspects of Middle Scots phonemics and graphemics: the implications of the sign <i>", Transactions of the Philological Society, 32-61.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1991) "'Scotica Pronunciatione': sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English authors on Scots", Scottish Language 10, 1-8.

Kuss, Werner (1970) "Laut-und Formenstand bei William Dunbar. Ein Beitrag zum Mittelschottischen", unpublished University of Graz PhD thesis.

Macafee, Caroline (1989) "Middle Scots dialects - extrapolating backwards" in J. Derrick McClure and Michael Spiller eds. Bryght Lanternis: Essays on the Language of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, Aberdeen University Press, 429-41.

Macafee, Caroline (2002) "The impact of anglicisation on the phonology of Scots: a keethin sicht" in Katja Lenz and Ruth Möhlig eds. Of Dyuersitie & Chaunge of Langage: Essays Presented to Manfred Görlach on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday Heidelberg: C. Winter, 240-256.

Meier, Hans (1968) Review of The Scottish National Dictionary vol.V:IV Ken-Langour, vol.VI:I,II Langsome-Merry-Leaf, English Studies 49, 350-354. On variation between /kl/ and /kn/.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1997) "A corpus-based study of t/d deletion and insertion in Late Medieval and Renaissance Scottish English" in Terttu Nevalainen and Leena Kahlas-Tarkka eds. To Explain the Present. Studies in the Changing English Language in Honour of Matti Rissanen, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 111-124. Some aspects are clearer when read in conjunction with Romaine (1984) (below).

Rohlfing, Helmut (1984) Die Werke James Elphinstons (1721-1809) als Quellen der englischen Lautgeschichte. Eine Analyse orthoepistischer Daten Anglistische Forschungen 172, Heidelberg.

Romaine, Suzanne (1984) "The sociolinguistic history of t/d deletion", Folia Linguistica Historica 5:2, 221-255. Theoretical, no new data. See further Anneli Meurman-Solin (1997) "A corpus-based study of t/d deletion and insertion in Late Medieval and Renaissance Scottish English" in Terttu Nevalainen and Leena Kahlas-Tarkka eds. To Explain the Present. Studies in the Changing English Language in Honour of Matti Rissanen, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 111-124.

Scheibe, Regina (2001) "The quha problem in William Dunbar's Quha will behald of luve the chance", Scottish Language 20, 80-85.

* van Buuren, Catherine ed. (1982) The Buke of the Sevyne Sagis: A Middle Scots Version of the Seven Sages of Rome. Edited from the Asloan Manuscript (NLS Acc. 4233), c. 1515, Leiden University Press. The introduction is an excellent description of late fifteenth century Scots, including an exhaustive treatment of datable features.

Williamson, Keith (2001) "Spatio-temporal aspects of Older Scots texts", Scottish Language 20, 1-19.

* Zai, Rudolph (1942) The Phonology of the Morebattle Dialect, Lucerne: Ræber. Still, with Dieth (1932), the best account of the philology of Scots, though tied to the southern dialect for the modern reflexes.

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10. Older Scots: Regional and Social variation

See also anglic 'Anglicisation': chronological differences in the rate of anglicisation are a source of regional and social variation.

* Aitken, A. J. (1971) "Variation and variety in written Middle Scots" in A. J. Aitken et al. eds. Edinburgh Studies in English and Scots, London: Longman, 177-209. Revised in Caroline Macafee, incorporating material by the late A. J. Aitken "A history of Scots to 1700" in A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue vol.12 (2002), Oxford University Press, xxi-clvi.

Benskin, Michael (1989) "Some aspects of Cumbrian English, mainly mediaeval" in Leiv Breivik et al. eds. Essays on English Language in Honour of Bertil Sundby Oslo: Novus, 13-46.

* Johnston, Paul (1997) "Older Scots phonology and its regional variation" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 47-111. The (page!) references to Robinson (1985) are in fact to Aitken's pronunciation entries in The Concise Scots Dictionary.

Macafee, Caroline (1989) "Middle Scots dialects - extrapolating backwards" in J. Derrick McClure and Michael Spiller eds. Bryght Lanternis: Essays on the Language of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, Aberdeen University Press, 429-441.

McKinlay, Rev. R. (1913) "The speech of Stirling in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries", Transactions of the Stirling Natural History and Archaeological Society 35, 41-56. Stirling and Peebles records both show intrusive <h> (not only in French loans). Cites some dialectal forms from North-Eastern records.

McIntosh, Angus (1987) "The Middle English and Scots equivalents of hence, thence and whence: some word-geographical facts, principles and problems" in Macafee and Macleod, eds., 106-15.

* McIntosh, Angus, M. L. Samuels, Michael Benskin et al. (1986) A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English, 4 volumes and guide, Aberdeen University Press. Includes 14 Scottish localities south of the Forth/Clyde line.

McIntosh, Angus (1978, 1989) "The dialectology of medieval Scots: some possible approaches to its study" in Angus McIntosh et al. eds. Middle English Dialectology: Essays on some Principles and Problems Aberdeen University Press, 81-85. Originally published Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 6, 38-44.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (2000) "On the conditioning of geographical and social distance in language variation and change in Renaissance Scots" in Dieter Kastovsky and Arthur Mettinger eds. The History of English in a Social Context: A Contribution to Historical Sociolinguistics Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 227-255.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (2001) "Women as informants in the reconstruction of geographically and socioculturally conditioned language variation and change in 16th and 17th century Scots", Scottish Language, 20-46.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (2001) "Structured text corpora in the study of language variation and change", Literary and Linguistic Computing 16:1, 5-27.

Muller, Paul (1908) Die sprache der Aberdeener urkunden des sechzehnten jahrhunderts, Berlin: Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität dissertation.

Williamson, Keith (1992/93) "A computer aided method for making a Linguistic Atlas of Older Scots", Scottish Language 11/12, 138-173.

Williamson, Keith (2001) "Spatio-temporal aspects of Older Scots texts", Scottish Language 20, 1-19.

Williamson, Keith (2000) "Changing spaces: Linguistic relationships and the dialect continuum" in Irma Taavitsainen et al. eds., Placing Middle English in Context, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 141-179.

 

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11. Older Scots: Grammar

For Modern Scots grammar, see modgrammar.

Caldwell, Sarah (1967) "The Relative Pronoun in Early Scots; a Lexicographical and Syntactical Study", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Caldwell, Sarah (1974) The Relative Pronoun in Early Scots, Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 42.

Dons, Ute and Lilo Moessner (1999) "The present participle in Middle Scots", Scottish Language 18, 17-33. The data would have been useful if proportions rather than absolute figures had been given.

Dossena, Marina (2001) "‘For the aduancement of the commoun weilth’: hypotheses in Scots scientific discourse of the 16th and 17th centuries. A preliminary investigation", Scottish Language 20, 47-65.

Dossena, Marina (2001) "The cruel slauchtyr that was cruelly exsecutit: Intensification and adverbial modality in the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots – A preliminary overview", Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 102:3, 287-302.

Klemola, Juhani (2000) "The origins of the Northern Subject Rule: a case of early contact?" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes II Heidelberg: C. Winter, 329-46.

Gburek, Hubert (1986) "Changes in the structure of the English verb system: evidence from Scots" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 115-123.

Hamp, Eric (1975/76) "Miscellanea Celtica I, II, II, IV", Studia Celtica X/XI, 54-73. See "Addendum on NP-VP concord", p.73 for the suggestion that the Northern Concord Rule is of Celtic origin.

Jumpertz-Schwab, Cornelia (1998) The Development of the Scots Lexicon and Syntax in the 16th Century under the Influence of Translations from Latin Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

King, Anne (1997) "The inflectional morphology of Older Scots" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 156-181.

Knopff, Paul (1904) Darstellung der Ablautverhältnisse in der schottischen Schriftsprache mit Vergleichungen in bezug auf Abweichungen der anderen mittelenglischen Dialekte Würzburg: Memminger. Copy in Edinburgh University Library.

Ledesma, M. Nieves Rodríguez (1997) "Periphrastic do in The Complaynt of Scotland and Ane Resonyng of ane Scottis and English Merchand", Scottish Language 16, 37-51.

Ledesma, M. Nieves Rodríguez (1998) "Othere places delitables in two sixteenth-century Scottish texts", Sederi 8, 25-34. On adjectives inflected for the plural.

* Macafee, Caroline (1992/93) "A short grammar of Older Scots", Scottish Language 11/12, 10-36. Revised in Caroline Macafee, incorporating material by the late A. J. Aitken "A history of Scots to 1700" in A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue vol.12 (2002), Oxford University Press, xxi-clvi.

Markus, Manfred (1997) "ME can and gan in context" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. I Language History, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 343-356.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1992) "On the morphology of verbs in Middle Scots: present and present perfect indicative" in Matti Rissanen et al. eds. History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 611-623. Also in Anneli Meurman-Solin Variation and Change in Early Scots Prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1993) Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 65, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 246-258.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1993) "Periphrastic do in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Scots" in M. Rissanen et al. eds. Early English in the Computer Age: Explorations through the Helsinki Corpus Topics in English Linguistics 11, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 235-251.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (2001) "Women as informants in the reconstruction of geographically and socioculturally conditioned language variation and change in 16th and 17th century Scots", Scottish Language, 20-46. Includes data on ye/you.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (2002) "Simple and complex grammars: the case of temporal subordinators in the history of Scots" in Helena Raumolin-Brunberg et al. eds., Variation Past and Present. VARIENG Studies on English for Terttu Nevalainen, Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 61, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 187-210.

Moessner, Lilo (1997) "The syntax of Older Scots" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 112-155.

* Montgomery, Michael (1994) "The evolution of verb concord in Scots" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 81-95.

Pódör, Dóra (1993) "The verb in Early Scots", The Odd Yearbook. Essays in English Linguistics by Undergraduates, 57-88.

Romaine, Suzanne (1981) "Relativisation, syntactic complexity and stylistic levels in Middle Scots", Folia Linguistica Historica 2, 56-77.

Romaine, Suzanne (1981) "Contributions from Middle Scots syntax to a theory of syntactic change" in Roderick Lyall and Felicity Riddy, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Scottish Language and Literature (Medieval and Renaissance) University of Stirling 2-7 July 1981, University of Stirling and University of Glasgow, 70-84.

Romaine, Suzanne (1982) Socio-Historical Linguistics: Its Status and Methodology, Cambridge University Press. Largely concerned with the relative clause.

Romaine, Suzanne (1984) "Some historical and social dimensions of syntactic change in Middle Scots relative clauses" in Norman Blake and Charles Jones eds. English Historical Linguistics: Studies in Development, CECTAL [Centre for English Cultural Tradition and Language] Conference Papers Series 3, University of Sheffield, 101-122.

Scheibe, Regina (2001) "The quha problem in William Dunbar's Quha will behald of luve the chance", Scottish Language 20, 80-85.

Taylor, R. (1917) "Some notes on the use of can and couth as preterite auxiliaries in Early and Middle Scottish poetry", Journal of English and Germanic Philology 16, 573-591. An early, and not very successful, attempt at using collocation with other verbs as a measure of authorship.

Welna, Jerzy (1997) "Weak-to-strong: a shift in English verbs?" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. I Language History, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 215-228. Untested hypothesis that there was a systematic shift in Scots, attaching –en to weak verbs.

 

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12. Older Scots: Style - Verse

Introductions to scholarly editions are not listed.

Agutter, Alex (1988) "Middle Scots as a literary language" in R. D. S. Jack ed. The History of Scottish Literature Vol. 1 Origins to 1660 (Mediaeval and Renaissance), Aberdeen University Press, 13-26.

* Aitken, A. J. (1983) "The language of Older Scots poetry" in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press, 18-49. Edited version in Caroline Macafee, incorporating material by the late A. J. Aitken "A history of Scots to 1700" in A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue vol.12 (2002), Oxford University Press, xxi-clvi.

Bawcutt, Priscilla (1971) "Lexical notes on Gavin Douglas's Eneados", Medium Ævum 40, 48-55.

Bawcutt, Priscilla (1976) Gavin Douglas. A Critical Study, Edinburgh University Press.

Bawcutt, Priscilla (1978) review of Ellenberger The Latin Element in the Vocabulary of the Earlier Makars Henryson and Dunbar (1977), Notes and Queries April 1978, 168-170.

Bawcutt, Priscilla (1983) "The art of flyting", Scottish Literary Journal 10:2, 5-21.

Bawcutt, Priscilla (1992) Dunbar the Makar, Oxford University Press.

Bitterling, K. (1970) "Der Wortschatz von Barbours 'Bruce'", unpublished Free University of Berlin PhD thesis.

Boffey, Julia and A. S. G. Edwards (2000) "Bodleian MS Arch. Selden. B. 24 and the 'Scotticization' of Middle English verse" in Thomas Prendergast and Barbara Kline eds. Rewriting Chaucer. Culture, Authority and the Idea of the Authentic Text, 1400-1602 Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 166-185.

* Corbett, John (1997) Language and Scottish Literature, Edinburgh University Press. See chapter 12 and appendix "Common stanzas in Scots poetry".

Craigie, William (1942) "The Scottish alliterative poems", Proceedings of the British Academy, 217-236.

Crépin, André (1978) "From <<swutol sang scopes>> to <<rum ram ruf>> - or the problems of alliteration" in Jean-Jacques Blanchot and Claude Graf eds. Actes du 2e Colloque de Langue et de Littérature Ecossaises (Moyen Age et Renaissance), University of Strasbourg, 113-124.

Dewey, Thomas B. (1973) "The Vocabulary of Gavin Douglas", unpublished University of California PhD thesis.

Ellenberger, Bengt (1977) The Latin Element in the Vocabulary of the Earlier Makars Henryson and Dunbar, Lund Studies in English 51, Lund.

Gordon, C. D. (1970) "Gavin Douglas's Latin vocabulary", Phoenix 24, 54-73.

Jack, R. D. S. (1993) "Of lion and unicorn: literary traditions at war" in R. D. S. Jack and Kevin McGinley eds. Of Lion and Unicorn. Essays on Anglo-Scottish Literary Relations in Honour of Professor John MacQueen Edinburgh: Quadriga Publishing, 67-99.

Kirkpatrick, Hugh (1976) "The Bob-wheel and Allied Stanza Forms in Middle English and Middle Scots Poetry", unpublished North Texas State University PhD thesis.

Kirkpatrick, Hugh (1978) "The ME and MScottish thirteen-line bob-wheel stanza: a theory of origins" in Jean-Jacques Blanchot and Claude Graf eds. Actes du 2e Colloque de Langue et de Litterature Ecossaises (Moyen age et Renaissance), University of Strasbourg, 125-32.

Macafee, Caroline (1981) "A stylistic analysis of Dunbar's 'In Winter'" in Roderick Lyall and Felicity Riddy, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Scottish Language and Literature (Medieval and Renaissance) University of Stirling 2-7 July 1981, University of Stirling and University of Glasgow, 359-369.

McFayden, Neill L. (1975) "The Stylistic Influence of the Alliterative Tradition on the Poetry of William Dunbar", unpublished University of Florida PhD thesis.

McGavin, John (1993) "The dramatic prosody of Sir David Lyndsay" in R. D. S. Jack and Kevin McGinley eds. Of Lion and Unicorn. Essays on Anglo-Scottish Literary Relations in Honour of Professor John MacQueen Edinburgh: Quadriga Publishing, 39-66.

Mackay, Margaret (1973) "The Scots of the Makars" in A. J. Aitken ed. Lowland Scots, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional papers 2, 20-37.

Mackay, Margaret (1975) "The Alliterative Tradition in Middle Scots Verse", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Mackay, Margaret (1981) "Structure and style in Richard Holland's Buke of the Howlat" in Roderick Lyall and Felicity Riddy, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Scottish Language and Literature (Medieval and Renaissance) University of Stirling 2-7 July 1981, University of Stirling and University of Glasgow, 191-206.

* McNeill, G. P. (1893) "Note on the versification and metres of Dunbar", Appendix III in John Small ed. The Poems of William Dunbar Vol. I, Scottish Text Society, 172-193. Note that in his terminology verse = line and strophe = stanza.

Markus, Manfred (1997) "ME can and gan in context" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. I Language History, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 343-356.

Milfull, Inge (2001) "Alliteration in the Wallace", Scottish Language 20, 66-79.

Moessner, Lilo (1994) "Besyde Latyn our langage is imperfite. The contribution of Gavin Douglas to the development of the Scots lexicon" in Horst Drescher and Pierre Morère eds. Scottish Studies: Proceedings of the Scottish Workshop of the ESSE Conference, Bordeaux 1993. GDR Études Écossaises, Université Stendhal, Grenoble and Scottish Studies Centre, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Germersheim, 5-17.

Nichols, P. H. (1931) "William Dunbar as a Scottish Lydgatean", Publications of the Modern Languages Association 46, 214-224.

Nicolaisen, W. F. H. (1977) "Line and sentence in Dunbar's poetry" in A. J. Aitken et al. Bards and Makars: Scottish Language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance, Glasgow University Press, 61-71.

Parkinson, David (1989) "Montgomerie's language" in J. Derrick McClure and Michael Spiller eds. Bryght Lanternis: Essays on the Language and Literature of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, Aberdeen University Press, 352-363.

Pollner, Clausdirk (1991) "The Complaint of Scotland: some textlinguistic remarks", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 303-308.

Proctor, J. W. (1966) "A Description of the Fifteenth Century Scots Dialect of Robert Henryson", unpublished University of Missouri PhD thesis.

Shaffer, Pamela (1994) "Parallel structure in Dunbar's Surrexit Dominus de Sepulchro", Scottish Language 13, 54-60.

Scheibe, Regina (1996) A Catalogue of Amphibians and Reptiles in Older Scots Literature Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Scheibe, Regina (2001) "The quha problem in William Dunbar's Quha will behald of luve the chance", Scottish Language 20, 80-85.

Singh, Catherine (1970/71) "The Alliterative Tradition in Scottish Poetry", unpublished University of Leeds PhD thesis.

Singh, Catherine (1975) "The alliterative ancestry of Dunbar's 'The tretis of the tua mariit wemen and the wedo'", Leeds Studies in English 7, 22-54.

Strickland, Eleanor C. (1971) "The Poetic Diction of William Dunbar", unpublished Arizona State University PhD thesis.

Taylor, R. (1917) "Some notes on the use of can and couth as preterite auxiliaries in Early and Middle Scottish poetry", Journal of English and Germanic Philology 16, 573-591. An early, and not very successful, attempt at using collocation with other verbs as a measure of authorship.

Zettersten, Arne (1979) "On the aureate diction of William Dunbar" in M. Chesnutt et al eds. Essays Presented to Knud Schibsbye, Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 51-68.

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13. Older Scots: Style - Rhetoric

* Craigie, J. ed. (1955) The Poems of King James VI of Scotland Vol.1, Scottish Text Society. See "Ane schort treatise, conteining some revlis and cautelis to be obseruit and eschewit in Scottis poesie". These are the notes of James VI as a student under George Buchanan.

Jack, Ronald (1967) "James VI and Renaissance poetic theory", English 16:96, 208-211.

Jack, Ronald (1997) "The language of literary materials: origins to 1700" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 213-266.

contents

 

14. Older Scots: Style - Prose

Introductions to scholarly editions are not listed.

Aitken, A. J. (1957) Review of J. A. W. Bennett ed. Devotional Pieces, Scottish Text Society (1955), Scottish Historical Review 36, 147-150.

Bitterling, Klaus (2001) "Language and style in The Complaynt of Scotland", Scottish Language 20, 86-98.

Dossena, Marina (2001) "‘For the aduancement of the commoun weilth’: hypotheses in Scots scientific discourse of the 16th and 17th centuries. A preliminary investigation", Scottish Language 20, 47-65.

Farrow, Kenneth (1997) "Bellenden's The Chronykils of Scotland", Lallans 49, 10-15.

Jack, Ronald (1981) "The prose of John Knox: a re-assessment", Prose Studies 4, 239-51.

* Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1993) Variation and Change in Early Scots Prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 65, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1993) "The author-addressee relationship and the marking of stance in the characterization of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century genre styles", Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Filologie en Geschiedenis 71:3, 733-745.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1993) "Periphrastic do in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Scots" in M. Rissanen et al. eds. Early English in the Computer Age: Explorations through the Helsinki Corpus Topics in English Linguistics 11, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 235-251.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1994) "On the evolution of prose genres in Older Scots" Nowele [North-Western European Language Evolution] 23, 91-138. Also in Anneli Meurman-Solin Variation and Change in Early Scots Prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1993) Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 65, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 276-314.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1999) "Point of view in Scottish and English genre styles" in Neil McMillan and Kirsten Stirling eds. Odd Alliances. Scottish Studies in European Contexts Glasgow: Cruithne Press, 25-51.

Scheibe, Regina (1996) A Catalogue of Amphibians and Reptiles in Older Scots Literature Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Sheppard, Elizabeth (1936) "Studies in the language of Bellenden's Boece" unpublished University of London PhD thesis.

contents

 

15. Older Scots: Speech

* Aitken, A. J. (1978) "Oral narrative style in Middle Scots" in Jean-Jacques Blanchot and Claude Graf eds. Actes du 2e Colloque de Langue et de Litterature Ecossaises (Moyen Age et Renaissance), University of Strasbourg, 98-112.

* Aitken, A. J. (1997) "The pioneers of anglicised speech in Scotland: a second look", Scottish Language 16, 1-36.

Bald, Marjory (1927) "The pioneers of anglicised speech in Scotland", Scottish Historical Review 24, 179-93.

Bald, Marjory (1928) "Contemporary references to the Scottish speech of the sixteenth century", Scottish Historical Review 25, 163-179.

MacQueen, Lilian (1983) "English was to them a foreign tongue", Scottish Language 2, 49-51.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1999) "Letters as a source of data for reconstructing Early Spoken Scots" in Irma Taavitsainen et al. eds Writing in Nonstandard English Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 305-322.

Robinson, Mairi (1983) "Language choice in the Reformation: The Scots Confession of 1560" in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press, 59-78.

 contents

 

16. Anglo-Scots

Craigie, William (DATE) "The language of the Kingis Quair", Essays and Studies of the English Association 25, 22-ENDPAGE.

Jack, Ronald (1981) "The prose of John Knox: a re-assessment", Prose Studies 4, 239-251.

Jeffery, C. D. (1978) "Anglo-Scots poetry and The Kingis Quair " in Jean-Jacques Blanchot and Claude Graf eds. Actes du 2e Colloque de Langue et de Litterature Ecossaises (Moyen Age et Renaissance), University of Strasbourg, 207-221.

Jeffery, C. D. (1981) "Colkelbie Sow: an Anglo-Scots Poem" in Roderick Lyall and Felicity Riddy, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Scottish Language and Literature (Medieval and Renaissance) University of Stirling 2-7 July 1981, University of Stirling and University of Glasgow, 207-224.

McIntosh, Angus (1979) "Some notes on the language and textual transmission of the Scottish Troy Book", Archivum Linguisticum new series 10, 1-19.

contents

 

17. Anglicisation

See also angloscots, modcontinuum, atttiudes, comparisons.

Agutter, Alex (1990) "Restandardisation in Middle Scots" in Sylvia Adamson et al. eds. Papers from the 5th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1-11.

* Aitken, A. J. (1997) "The pioneers of anglicised speech in Scotland: a second look", Scottish Language 16, 1-36.

Bailey, Richard (1987) "Teaching the vernacular: Scotland, schools, and linguistic diversity" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 131-142.

Bailey, Richard (1991) "Scots and Scotticisms: language and ideology", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 65-77.

 * Bald, Marjory (1926) "The anglicisation of Scottish printing", Scottish Historical Review 23, 107-115.

Bald, Marjory (1927) "The pioneers of anglicised speech in Scotland", Scottish Historical Review 24, 179-193.

Basker, James (1993) "Scotticisms and the problem of cultural identity in eighteenth-century Britain" in John Dwyer and Richard Sher eds. Sociability and Society in Eighteenth-Century Scotland Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 81-95. 

Craig, David (1961) Scottish Literature and the Scottish People 1680-1830, London: Chatto & Windus. See Chapter 8 for eighteenth century language attitudes.

Devitt, Amy (1989) "Genre as textual variable: some historical evidence from Scots and American English", American Speech 64:4, 291-303.

Devitt, Amy (1989) Standardizing Written English. Diffusion in the Case of Scotland 1520-1659, Cambridge University Press.

Donaldson, Gordon (1961) "Foundations of Anglo-Scottish Union" in S. T. Bindoff et al. eds. Elizabethan Government and Society. Essays presented to Sir John Neale, London: Athlone, 282-314.

Dossena, Marina (1997) "Attitudes to Scots in Burns' correspondence", Linguistica e Filologia 4, 91-103.

Dossena, Marina (1997) "The search for linguistic excellence in eighteenth-century Scotland", Textus 10:2, 355-376.

Dossena, Marina (1999-2000) "Sense, shortness and salt: ideas of improvement in eighteenth and nineteenth century collections of Scottish proverbs", Review of Scottish Culture 12, 93-106.

Emsley, B. (1933) "James Buchanan and the eighteenth century regulation of English usage", PMLA 48, 1154-66.

Geddie, William (1912) A Bibliography of Middle Scots Poets. With an Introduction on the History of their Reputations Edinburgh and London: Blackwood for the Scottish Text Society.

* Görlach, Manfred (1997, 1997) "Text types and the history of Scots", Journal of English Linguistics 25, 209-230. Revised in Manfred Görlach Even More Englishes. Studies 1996-1997 Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 55-77.

* Hewitt, David (1987) "James Beattie and the languages of Scotland" in Jennifer Carter and Joan Pittock eds. Aberdeen and the Enlightenment, Aberdeen University Press, 251-260.

Hook, Andrew (1999) From Goosecreek to Gandercleugh. Studies in Scottish-American Literary and Cultural History East Linton: Tuckwell. See Chapter 3 on rhetoric and politeness.

Kinghorn, A. M. (1992) "Watson's choice, Ramsay's voice and a flash of Fergusson", Scottish Literary Journal 19:2, 5-23.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1997) "The influence of English upon Scottish writing" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. I Language History, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 637-653.

Kohler, K. J. (1966) "A late eighteenth-century comparison of the 'provincial dialect of Scotland' and the 'pure dialect'", Linguistics 23, 30-68.

Ledesma, M. Nieves Rodríguez (1996) "Authorship of The Complaynt of Scotland", Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 32/33, 77-91.

Macafee, Caroline (2002) "The impact of anglicisation on the phonology of Scots: a keethin sicht" in Katja Lenz and Ruth Möhlig eds. Of Dyuersitie & Chaunge of Langage: Essays Presented to Manfred Görlach on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday Heidelberg: C. Winter, 240-256.

* McClure, J. Derrick (1981, 1995) "Scottis, Inglis, Suddroun: language labels and language attitudes" in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1995, 44-56. Originally published in Roderick Lyall and Felicity Riddy, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Scottish Language and Literature (Medieval and Renaissance) University of Stirling 2-7 July 1981, University of Stirling and University of Glasgow, 52-69.

* MacQueen, Lilian (1957) "The Last Stages of the Older Literary Language of Scotland: A Study of the Surviving Scottish Elements in Scottish Prose, 1700-1750, Especially of the Records, National and Local", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

MacQueen, Lilian (1983) "English was to them a foreign tongue", Scottish Language 2, 49-51.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1991) "Variation and variety in Middle Scots reconsidered: A test study of the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 38-49. Also in Anneli Meurman-Solin Variation and Change in Early Scots Prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1993) Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 65, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 236-245.

* Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1993) Variation and Change in Early Scots Prose. Studies based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Sctos Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 65, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

* Meurman-Solin, Anneli (1997) "Differentiation and standardisation in early Scots", in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 3-23. Data based on a larger sample than her 1993 book.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli (2001) "Women as informants in the reconstruction of geographically and socioculturally conditioned language variation and change in 16th and 17th century Scots", Scottish Language, 20-46.

Montgomery, Michael (1992) "The anglicization of Scots in early seventeenth century Ulster", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 50-64.

Peters, Hans (1997) "The Duke's English: the language of the Hamilton Papers", Scottish Language" 16, 63-73.

Pollner, Clausdirk and Helmut Rohlfing (1986) "The Scottish language from the 16th to the 18th century: Elphinston's works as a mirror of anglicisation" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 125-137.

Robinson, Mairi (1983) "Language choice in the Reformation: The Scots Confession of 1560" in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press, 59-78.

Rogers, Pat (1991) "Boswell and the Scotticism" in Greg Clingham ed. New Light on Boswell, Cambridge University Press, 56-71.

Watson, Harry (1984) "William Tennant, the Ettrick Shepherd and the Psalms of David: a linguistic controversy", Scottish Language 3, 60-70.

Wood, Harriet (1993) "The Englishness of Watson's Choice Collection" in R. D. S. Jack and Kevin McGinley eds. Of Lion and Unicorn. Essays on Anglo-Scottish Literary Relations in Honour of Professor John MacQueen Edinburgh: Quadriga Publishing, 100-114.

 contents

 

18. Modern Scots: General

Bähr, Dieter (1974) Standard Englisch und seine geographischen Varienten Munich. See Chapter 3.

Dossena, Marina (2001) "The voice of witnesses in nineteenth-century accounts of the Highland Clearances", Review of Scottish Culture 13, 40-50.

Douglas, Sheila (1998) "Sir James Wilson and his commonsense approach to the Scots language", Scottish Language 17, 16-21.

The European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages (1993) Mini-Guide to the Lesser Used Languages of the EC, Dublin: European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages. Minimal entry.

Görlach, Manfred (1991) Introduction to Early Modern English, Cambridge University Press. See Section 2.5 "Scots".

Grant, William and James Main Dixon (1921) Manual of Modern Scots, Cambridge University Press.

McNaught, D. (1901, 1955) "The raucle tongue of Burns", Burns Chronicle 10, 26-37. Reprinted Burns Chronicle third series 4, 19-29.

Mather, James (1973) "The Scots we speak today" in A. J. Aitken ed. Lowland Scots, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional papers 2, 56-68.

Romaine, Suzanne and Nancy Dorian (1981) "Scotland as a linguistic area", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 14, 1-24.

Stephens, Meic (1976) Linguistic Minorities in Western Europe, Llandysul: Gower. See "The Lowland Scots", 78-102.

 contents

 

19. Modern Scots: Lexis

See also Sections 27 maintenance and 34 linggeog. Work on Scottish ethnography generally includes terminology as part of the discussion. Much work in this area has been done by Alexander Fenton, and his main writings are listed. Otherwise I have included only a few items where lexis is more central to the argument. For a bibliography of Alexander Fenton's work up to 1990, see Hugh Cheape ed. Tools and Traditions. Studies in European Ethnology presented to Alexander Fenton Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland, 1993.

Baldwin, John (1996) "Heaps, humps and hollows on the Foula skattald" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 205-229.

Barrowman, James (1886) A Glossary of Scotch Mining Terms, PLACE OF PUBLICATION, PUBLISHER.

Braidwood, John (1965) "Towards an Ulster dialect dictionary", Ulster Dialect Archive Bulletin 4, 3-14. Partly a review of the Ulster material in The Scottish National Dictionary.

Braidwood, John (1972) "Terms for 'left-handed' in the Ulster dialects", Ulster Folklife 18, 98-110.

Braidwood, John (1974) "Crowls and runts: Ulster dialect terms for 'the weakling of the litter'", Ulster Folklife 20, 71-84.

Braidwood, John (1975) "The Ulster Dialect Lexicon", Inaugural Lecture, Queen's University of Belfast, 23 April 1969.

Buchanan, W. W. and W. Graham (1978) Dictionary of Scots Anatomical Terms, Bracknell, Berkshire PUBLISHER - QUERY PRIVATELY PUBLISHED.

Douglas, Fiona (2000) "The Role of Lexis in Scottish Newspapers" unpublished University of Glasgow PhD thesis.

Fenton, Alexander (1968/69) "The tabu language of the fishermen of Orkney and Shetland", Ethnologia Europaea 2/3, 118-122.

Fenton, Alexander (1972, 1985) "A fuel of necessity: animal manure" in Edith Ennen and Günter Wiegelmann eds. Festschrift Matthias Zender. Studien zu Volkskultur, Sprache und Landesgeschichte, Bonn: Ludwig Röhrscheid, 722-734. Reprinted in Alexander Fenton, The Shape of the Past. Essays in Scottish Ethnology, Edinburgh: John Donald, 96-111.

Fenton, Alexander (1976) Scottish Country Life, Edinburgh: John Donald.

Fenton, Alexander (1978) The Northern Isles: Orkney and Shetland, Edinburgh: John Donald.

Fenton, Alexander (1985, 1986) The Shape of the Past. Essays in Scottish Ethnology, 2 volumes, Edinburgh: John Donald.

Fenton, Alexander (1987) "A North-East farmer's working vocabulary" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 153-165.

Fenton, Alexander (1989) "The working vocabulary of a farm in Northeast Scotland in the mid-twentieth century" in J. Lachlan Mackenzie and Richard Todd eds. In Other Words. Transcultural Studies in Philology, Translation, and Lexicology Presented to Hans Heinrich Meier on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday, Dordrecht: Foris, 315-325.

Fenton, Alexander (1989) "Wheeled vehicles for loads. Pre-Improvement types and terminology in Scotland" in F. O. Baptista et al. eds Estudos em homenagem a Ernesto Veiga de Oliveira Lisbon: Instituto Nacional de Investigaç â o Cientifica Centro do Estudos de Etnologia, 149-166.

Fenton, Alexander (1996) "Three rifted or four topped: nineteenth century lug marks from North Yell" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 230-241.

Flom, George (1925) "Noa words in North Sea regions: A chapter in folklore and linguistics", Journal of American Folklore 38, 400-418.

Gailey, Alan (1962) "Ropes and rope-twisters", Ulster Folklife 8, 72-82.

Gailey, Alan (1972) "The last sheaf in the North of Ireland", Ulster Folklife 18, 1-33.

Görlach, Manfred (1987) "Lexical loss and lexical survival: the case of Scots and English", Scottish Language 6, 1-20. Slight, and misconceived in suggesting that Anglo-Norman influence is lacking in Scots, but gives an interesting list of 100 words derived from Old English still surviving in Modern Scots.

Jackson, Robin (1996) A Guide to Scots Bird Names, Drumoak, Aberdeenshire: Ptarmigan Press.

Kerr, R. D. ed. (1979) A Glossary of Mining Terms Used in Fife, Kirkcaldy College of Technology.

Knight, Lorna (1992) "Glasgow slang" in Claudia Blank ed. Language and Civilization. A Concerted Profusion of Essays and Studies in Honours of Otto Hietsch, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 69-75.

Levitt, Ian and Christopher Smout (1977) "Some weights and measures in Scotland, 1843", Scottish Historical Review 61:2, 146-152. A note to the preceding article by Zupko in the same issue.

Macafee, Caroline (1990) "Mankeepers", By Word of Mouth 18, 40-41.

McCaughan, Michael (1968) "Terminology of flax-scutching", Ulster Folklife 14, 6-13.

Mackay, Margaret (1987) "The sib and the fremd: community life in the dictionaries" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 211-218.

MacLean, Calum and Stewart Sanderson (1960) "A collection of riddles from Shetland", Scottish Studies 4:2, 150-186. Collected in 1954 by advertising in the Shetland News.

Macleod, Iseabail (1987) "Eighteenth-century Scots food terminology" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 219-226.

McPhee, W. H. (1983) "Mining terms used in Fife", Scottish Language 2, 33-41.

* Mather, James Y. and H. H. Speitel (1975,1977,1986) The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland 3 volumes, London: Croom Helm. The first two volumes deal with lexical material and the third with phonetic.

Melchers, Gunnel (1986) "Narrowing and extension of meaning in the Scandinavian-based vocabulary of Shetland dialect", Scottish Language 5, 110-119.

Murison, David (1964) "The Scots tongue: the folk-speech", Folklore 75, 37-47.

Murison, David (1974, 1975) "The vocabulary of the Kirk", Liturgical Review 4:2, 45-49; 5:1, 53-55.

Opie, Iona and Peter (1959, 1977) The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren, Oxford University Press, republished Frogmore, St Albans: Granada Publishing.

Pride, Glen (1975, revised 1996) Dictionary of Scottish Building, Edinburgh: The Rutland Press. Originally published as Glossary of Scottish Building Terms, Glasgow: Scottish Civic Trust.

Pride, Glen (1987) "Scottish building terms", Scottish Language 6, 30-44.

Sandred, Karl Inge (1982) "Linguistic taboo in the speech of Scottish fishermen. A few observations in the light of recent research", Scottish Language 1, 1-5.

Schlötterer, Rainer (1996) "Fishermen's Dialect on the South-East Coast of Scotland. Lexical Aspects", University of Bamberg PhD thesis. Copy in the Fisheries Museum, Anstruther, Fife.

Tulloch, Graham (1997) "Lexis" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 378-432.

Williamson, Keith (1995/96) "A maze of words. The William Will Fellowship Data-base Project", Review of Scottish Culture 9, 128-138.

Wilson, James (1926) The Dialects of Central Scotland, London: Oxford University Press.

Zupko, R. E. (1977) "The weights and measures of Scotland before the Union", Scottish Historical Review 61:2, 121-145. See also following article by Levitt and Smout in the same issue.

 

 contents

 

20. Modern Scots: Grammar

For Older Scots grammar, see oscgrammar.

Amini, Marjan (1998) "Use of Same Polarity Tags in Aberdeen and the North-East of Scotland", unpublished University of Aberdeen MLitt thesis.

Anderwald, Lieselotte (2001) "Was/were-variation in non-standard British English today", English World-Wide 22:1, 1-22. Includes some Scottish data. Also covers ain’t.

* Beal, Joan (1997) "Syntax and morphology" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 335-377.

Brown, Keith and Jim Miller (1975) "Modal verbs in Scottish English", Work in Progress 8, Department of Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, 99-114.

Brown, Keith and Martin Millar (1980) "Auxiliary verbs in Edinburgh speech", Transactions of the Philological Society, 81-133.

Brown, Keith and Jim Miller (1980) "Scottish English". Final Grant Report to the Social Science Research Council, grant no. 5152/1.

Brown, Keith (1991) "Double models in Hawick Scots" in Peter Trudgill and J. K. Chambers eds. Dialects of English. Studies in Grammatical Variation, London and New York: Longman, 74-103.

Cheshire, Jenny et al. (1989, 1993) "Non-standard English and dialect levelling" in James and Lesley Milroy eds. Real English. The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles, London: Longman, 53-96. Originally published as "Urban British dialect grammar: the question of dialect levelling", English World-Wide 10:2, 185-225. The Survey of British Dialect Grammar included two Glasgow localities (the only Scottish localities) and the authors are careful to point out differences between Glasgow and elsewhere.

Corrigan, Karen (2000) "'What bees to be maun be': aspects of deontic and epistemic modality in a northern dialect of Irish English", English World-Wide 21:1, 25-62. The origin of the construction is undoubtedly as given in A Concise Ulster Dictionary s.v bud (i.e. redivision of bude to with the /i/ reflex Vowel 7 in certain dialects of Ulster Scots as in North-Eastern Scots), but the discussion of epistemic usage stands).

de la Cruz, Juan (1997) "The issue of double modals in the history of English revisited" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. I Language History, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 87-99. Theoretical, no new data.

Dieth, Eugen (1957) "'Whose little lad are you?'", English Studies 38:6, 1-16. On the construction wha is aucht/awe that?

Dossena, Marina (1998) "Diminutives in Scottish Standard English", Scottish Language 17, 22-39.

Dossena, Marina (1998) "Portraiture and self-portraiture in Scottish Standard English", Linguistica e Filologia 6, 27-42.

Edwards, Viv et al. (1984) The Grammar of English Dialect: A Survey of Research, London: Economic and Social Research Council.

Edwards, Viv and B. Weltens (1984) "Research on non-standard dialects of British English: progress and prospects" in Wolfgang Viereck ed. Focus on: England and Wales Amsterdam: Benjamins, 97-139.

Fennel, Barbara and Ronald Butters (1996) "Historical and contemporary distribution of double modals in English" in Edgar Schneider ed. Focus on the USA, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 265-288.

Filppula, Markku (1991) "Subordinating and in Hiberno-English syntax: Irish or English origin?" in P. Sture Ureland and George Broderick eds. Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 617-631.

Görlach, Manfred (1994, 1996) "Morphological standardization: the strong verbs in Scots" in Manfred Görlach New Studies in the History of English, Heidelberg: Winter (1994), 51-81. Shorter version in Derek Britton ed. English Historical Linguistics 1994. Papers from the 8th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (8.ICEHL, Edinburgh, 19-23 September 1994), Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins (1996), 161-181.

Graham, William (1977) The Scots Word Book, Edinburgh: The Ramsay Head Press.

Häcker, Martina (1994) "Subordinate and-clauses in Scots and Hiberno-English: origins and development", Scottish Language 13, 34-50. The Celtic parallels are earlier and the Celtic hypothesis therefore stronger than she allows.

Häcker, Martina (1999) Adverbial Clauses in Scots: A Semantic-Syntactic Study Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Harris, John (1993) "The grammar of Irish English" in James Milroy and Lesley Milroy eds. Real English: the Dialects of English in the British Isles, London: Longman, 118-131.

Henry, Alison (1992) "Infinitives in a for-to dialect", Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 10, 279-301.

Henry, Alison (1994) "Singular concord in Belfast English", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 12, 134-176.

Henry, Alison (1995) Belfast English and Standard English: Dialect Variation and Parameter Setting, New York: Oxford University Press.

Henry, Alison (1997) "The syntax of Belfast English" in Jeffrey Kallen ed. Focus on Ireland, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 89-108.

Kallen, Jeffrey (1991) "Intra-language transfer and plural subject concord in Irish and Appalachian English", Teanga 11, 11-21.

Kirk, John (1986) "Aspects of the Grammar in a Corpus of Dramatic Texts in Scots", unpublished University of Sheffield PhD thesis.

Kirk, John (1987) "The heteronomy of Scots with Standard English" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 166-181.

Kirk, John (1987) "Inter-corpus comparisons: the primary auxiliary verb be" in J. P. G. Roper ed. Proceedings of the XIII ALLC Conference, Geneva: Slatkine, 123-133.

Kirk, John (1987) "Auxiliary verbs, frequencies, and the identity of Scots", Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 8:1,2; 159-171.

Kirk, John (1988) "The dialectology of Scots: The use of dramatic texts" in Alan Thomas ed. Methods in Dialectology, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 492-509.

Kirk, John (1994) "Using VARBRUL for studying modal auxiliary verbs?", Hermes Journal of Linguistics 13, 71-85.

Kirk, John and Georgina Millar (1998) "Verbal aspect in the Scots and English of Ulster", Scottish Language 17, 82-107.

Klemola, Juhani and Markku Filppula (1992) "Subordinating uses of and in the history of English" in Matti Rissanen et al. eds. History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 310-318.

Macafee, Caroline (1980) "Characteristics of non-standard grammar in Scotland", unpublished manuscript, http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~enl038/grammar.htm. Currently lacks footnotes.

Macafee, Caroline and Colm Ó Baoill (1997) "Why Scots is not a Celtic English" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 245-286.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1989) "'He was some man him': emphatic pronouns in Scottish English" in Thomas Walsh ed. Synchronic and Diachronic Approaches to Linguistic Variation and Change, Georgetown University Press, 179-187.

McRae, Sandra (2000) "The demonstrative pronouns in the North-East: an introductory discussion", Scottish Language 19, 66-82.

Mather, James Y. (1995) "Dialect" in Donald Omand ed. The Border Book Edinburgh: Birlinn, 193-202. Includes the only report known to me of grammatical material from the Linguistic Survey of Scotland, albeit brief.

Melchers, Gunnel (1987) "Is du heard aboot yun afore? On the use of be as a perfective auxiliary in Shetland dialect", Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Stockholm Studies in Modern Philology New Series 8, 56-60.

Melchers, Gunnel (1992) "’Du’s no heard da last o’dis’ – on the use of be as a perfective auxiliary in Shetland dialect" in M. Rissanen et al. eds. History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 602-610.

Melchers, Gunnel (1997) "This, that, yon: on 'three-dimensional' deictic systems" in Jenny Cheshire and Peter Stein eds. Taming the Vernacular. From Dialect to Written Standard Language, Longman: London and New York, 83-92.

Millar, Martin and Keith Brown (1979) "Tag questions in Edinburgh speech", Linguistische Berichte 60, 24-45.

Miller, Jim ([1980]) "Reference to future time in a corpus of Scottish English" Social Science Research Council working paper.

Miller, Jim ([1980]) "The expression of necessity and obligation in Scottish English " Social Science Research Council working paper.

Miller, Jim ([1980]) "The expression of possibility and permission in Scottish English " Social Science Research Council working paper.

Miller, Jim ([1980]) "GET in a corpus of spoken Scottish English" Social Science Research Council working paper.

Miller, Jim ([1980]) "Negatives in Scottish English " Social Science Research Council working paper.

Miller, Jim (1984) "Discourse patterns in spoken English", Sheffield Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 1, 10-39.

Miller, Jim (1988) "That: A relative pronoun? Sociolinguistics and syntactic analysis" in John Anderson and Norman Macleod eds. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, Edinburgh: John Donald, 113-119.

Miller, Jim and Keith Brown (1982) "Aspects of Scottish English syntax", English World-Wide 3:1, 3-17.

* Miller, James ([1989], 1993) "The grammar of Scottish English" in James and Lesley Milroy eds. Real English. The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles, London: Longman, 99-138. Originally published as an Economic and Social Research Council pamphlet [n.d.], collected in James and Lesley Milroy eds. Regional Variation in British English Syntax London: Economic and Social Research Council [1989].

Moessner, Lilo (1988) "Is the subject-verb concord in Scots a number concord?" in Richard Matthews and Joachim Schmole-Rostovsky, Papers on Language and Medieval Studies Presented to Alfred Schopf, Frankfurt: PUBLISHER, 177-191. Argument relies on some dubious examples.

Montgomery, Michael and Stephen Nagle (1993) "Double modals in Scotland and the Southern United States: trans-Atlantic inheritance or independent development?", Folia Linguistica HistoricaI 14, 91-107.

Montgomery, Michael (1997) "Making Transatlantic connections between varieties of English. The case of plural verbal -s", Journal of English Linguistics 25:2, 122-141.

Nagle, Stephen (1989) Inferential Change and Syntactic Modality in English, Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Nagle, Stephen (1993) "Double modals in early English" in Henk Aertsen and Robert Jeffers eds. DETAILS, 363-370.

Nagle, Stephen (1994) "The English double modal conspiracy", Diachronica 11:2, 199-211.

Nagle, Stephen (1997) "What is double about double modals?" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. II Linguistic Modelling, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1513-1526.

Paddock, Harold (1997) "Effects of mood loss and aspect gain on English tenses" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. II Linguistic Modelling, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1527-1536. On narrative present tense.

Pavlenko, Alexander (1996) "On the use of ‘be’ as a perfective auxiliary in modern Shetland dialect: hybridisation and syntactic change" in P. Sture Ureland and Iain Clarkson eds. Language Contact across the Atlantic, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 75-82.

Pavlenko, Alexander (1997) "The origin of the be-perfect with transitives in the Shetland dialect", Scottish Language 16, 88-96.

Policansky, Linda (1982) "Grammatical variation in Belfast English", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 6, 37-66.

Purves, David (1997, revised 2002) A Scots Grammar. Scots Grammar and Usage Edinburgh: The Saltire Society.

Rennie, Susan ([1999]) Grammar Broonie: A Guide tae Scots Grammar, Edinburgh: Scottish National Dictionary Association. For schools.

Robertson, T. A. and John Graham (1952) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick: Shetland Times Ltd.

Robinson, Philip (1997) Ulster-Scots. A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language, The Ullans Press.

Romaine, Suzanne (1980) "The relative clause marker in Scots English: Diffusion, complexity, and style as dimensions of syntactic change", Language in Society 9, 221-247.

Sabban, Annette (1982) Gälisch-Englischer Sprachkontakt. Zur Variabilität des Englischen im Gälischsprachigen Gebiet Schottlands. Eine empirische Studie, Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Sabban, Annette (1985) "On the variability of Hebridean English syntax: the verbal group" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 125-144.

Šcur, G. S. (1968) "On the non-finite forms of the verb can in Scottish", Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 11:2, 211-218. Slight and heavily dependent on examples from The Scottish National Dictionary.

Smith, Jennifer and Sali Tagliamonte (1998) "'We were all thegither … I think we was all thegither': Was regularization in Buckie English", World Englishes 17, 105-26.

Smith, Jennifer (2000) "Synchrony and Diachrony in the Evolution of English: Evidence from Scotland", unpublished University of York PhD thesis.

Smith, Jennifer (2000) '"You Ø na hear o' that kind o' things." Negative do in Buckie Scots', English World-Wide 21:2, 231-59.

Tagliamonte, Sali and Jennifer Smith (1999) "Old was; new ecology: viewing English through the sociolinguistic filter" in S. Poplack ed. The English History of African American Vernacular English Oxford: Blackwell, 141-171. Data from black and white communities in Nova Scotia and from Buckie (North-East Scots) on was with second person singular and with NP v. pronoun subject.

Viereck, Wolfgang (1997) "On negation in dialectal English" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. I, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 759-767.

Wright, Susan (1997) "'Ah'm going for to give youse a story today': remarks on second person plural pronouns in Englishes" in Jenny Cheshire and Peter Stein eds. Taming the Vernacular. From Dialect to Written Standard Language, Longman: London and New York, 170-184.

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21. Modern Scots: The Scots/Standard English Continuum

Aitken, A. J. (1979) "Scottish speech: a historical view with special reference to the Standard English of Scotland" in A. J. Aitken and Tom McArthur eds. Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 85-118. Updated in next.

* Aitken, A. J. (1984) "Scots and English in Scotland" in Peter Trudgill ed. Language in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, 517-532. Revision of preceeding.

Aitken, A. J. DATE 'Sukottorando no eigo' in Yoshihiro Matsumura ed. Seikai no eigo 1 - Igirisu syutoohen, Tokyo: Kenkyusha PAGES. Japanese revision of preceeding, with additional material on Highland English.

Dossena, Marina (1996) "Overt scotticisms in the vocabulary of Scottish Standard English: A matter of style?", Linguistica e Filologia New Series 2, 5-21.

Douglas, Fiona (2000) "The Role of Lexis in Scottish Newspapers" unpublished University of Glasgow PhD thesis.

Harris, John (1996) "On the trail of short u", English World-Wide 17:1, 1-42.

Hill, Trevor (1958) "Institutional linguistics", Orbis 7, 441-455.

Kirk, John (1991) "Language contact and Scots" in P. Sture Ureland and George Broderick eds. Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 535-557.

McArthur, Tom (1979) "The status of English in and furth of Scotland" in A. J. Aitken and Tom McArthur, eds. Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 50-67.

McArthur, Tom (1992) "The Scots - bilingual or just confused?", World Englishes 11:2/3, 101-110.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1973, 1997) "Double standards", American Anthropologist 75, 1324-1337. Revised in Ronald K. S. Macaulay, Standards and Variation in Urban Speech, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 21-33.

McClure, J. Derrick (1975) "The English speech of Scotland", Aberdeen University Review 46:2:154, 173-189.

* McClure, J. Derrick (1979, 1995) "Scots and its use in recent poetry" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 171-189. Originally published as "Scots: its range of uses" in A. J. Aitken and Tom McArthur eds. Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 26-48.

McClure, J. Derrick (1992) "What, if anything, is a Scotticism?" in Simon Bronner ed. Creativity and Tradition in Folklore: New Directions, Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 205-221.

Mather, James (1974) "Social variation in present-day Scots" in J. Derrick McClure ed. The Scots Language in Education, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 3, 44-53.

Moessner, Lilo (1993) "Scots - a regional variety of Standard English" in Hans Ulrich Seeber and Walter Göbel eds. Anglistentag 1992 Stuttgart, Proceedings 14, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 154-163.

Murison, David (1965) "Scottish variants of the English language", Books 360, 124-128.

Pollner, Clausdirk (1989) "From riches to rags - from rags to riches: the case of Scots and English in Scotland" in P. Zenzinger ed. Scotland: Literature, Culture, Politics, Heidelberg: Winter; Anglistik und Englischunterricht 38/39, 51-69.

Romaine, Suzanne (1975) "Approaches to the description of Scots English", Work in Progress 8, Department of Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, 121-124.

Sprague, T. B. (1880-81) "On som differences between the speech of Edinboro and London", Transactions of the Philological Society, 106-116. Contemporary observations on Edinburgh speech (mainly Scottish English) by an Englishman.

Trudgill, Peter (1974) "Sociolinguistics and Scots dialects" in J. Derrick McClure ed. The Scots Language in Education, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 3, 28-34.

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22a. Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - General

See also linggeog, and socioling for sociolinguistic studies using phonetic variables. For Older Scots phonology, see oscphon and also oscregional.

Abercrombie, David (1954, 1965) "A Scottish vowel" in David Abercrombie Studies in Phonetics and Linguistics, Oxford University Press, 137-138. Originally published in Le Maitre Phonétique (1954), 23-24. On the vowel of the word class NEVER, sometimes now known as the Aitken vowel.

* Abercrombie, David (1977, 1979) "The accents of Standard English in Scotland" in J. A. Aitken and Tom McArthur eds. Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 68-84. Originally published Work in Progress Linguistics Department, Unversity of Edinburgh 10, 21-32.

Aitken, A. J. (1984) "Scottish accents and dialects" in Peter Trudgill ed. Language in the British Isles Cambridge University Press, 94-114.

Aitken, A. J. (1986) "The pronunciation entries for the CSD" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 35-46.

* Catford, J. C. (1957) "Vowel systems of Scots dialects", Transactions of the Philological Society, 107-117.

Chirrey, Deborah (2001) "An Articulatory and Acoustic Phonetic Study of Selected Consonants in Accents of Scottish English" unpublished University of Glasgow PhD thesis.

* Dieth, Eugen (1932) A Grammar of the Buchan Dialect, Cambridge University Press. Still, with Zai (1942), the best account of the philology of Scots, though tied to the North-East dialect for the modern reflexes.

Glauser, Beat (1994) "The sound /x/ in Scots" in Horst Drescher and Pierre Morère eds. Scottish Studies: Proceedings of the Scottish Workshop of the ESSE Conference, Bordeaux 1993, GDR Études Écossaises, Université Stendhal, Grenoble and Scottish Studies Centre, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Germersheim, 19-37.

Görlach, Manfred (1997, 1997) "Linguistic jokes based on dialect divergence" in Manfred Görlach Even More Englishes. Studies 1996-1997, 46-54. Originally published in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. II Linguistic Modelling, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1925-1934.

Grant, William (1913) The Pronunciation of English in Scotland, Cambridge University Press.

Grant, William (1931) "Introduction" to The Scottish National Dictionary, volume 1, Edinburgh: The Scottish National Dictionary Association.

Grant, William and Elizabeth Robson (1926) Speech Training for Scottish Students, London: Cambridge University Press.

Gregg, Robert (1973) "The diphthongs  I and aI in Scottish, Scotch-Irish and Canadian English", Canadian Journal of Linguistics 18, 136-145.

Gussengoven, C. & A. Groeders (1976) The Pronunciation of English, Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff/Longham. See "Scots English", 201-209.

Harris, John (1986) "The lexicon in phonological variation" in John Harris et al. eds. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland, Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studied, Trinity College Dublin, 187-208.

Harris, John (1986) "Phonetic constraints on sociolinguistic variation", Sheffield Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 3, 120-143.

Harris, John (1989) "Towards a lexical analysis of sound change in progress", Journal of Linguistics 25, 35-56.

Harris, John (1996) "On the trail of short u", English World-Wide 17:1, 1-42.

Hughes, Arthur and Peter Trudgill (1979, 1987) English Accents and Dialects. An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of British English London: Edward Arnold, 2nd edn., accompanying tape. Includes Edinburgh and Glasgow voices and describes the essential features of Scottish Standard English and some Scots features.

Kaminska, Tatiana (1995) Problems in Scottish English Phonology, Tübingen: Niemeyer. Theoretical, no new data.

Kniezsa, Veronika (1976) "To the phonetical aspects of the development of the Standard Scots vowel system", Acta Linguistica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 26, 457-466.

Lass, Roger (1989) "System-shape and the eternal return: front rounded vowels in English", Folia Linguistica Historica 10:1-2, 163-198.

Lawson, Eleanor (1998) "The 'Scottish' consonants in the speech of Glaswegian schoolchildren - a sociophonetic investigation". Unpublished Vacation Scholarship Report to the Carnegie Trust.

Lawson, E. and J. Stuart-Smith (1999) "A sociophonetic investigation of the 'Scottish' consonants (/x/ and /hw/) in the speech of Glaswegian children" in Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences San Francisco, 2541-4.

Lodge, K. R. (1984) Studies in the Phonology of Colloquial English, London. See Chapter 4, Edinburgh, 80-94.

Macafee, Caroline and Colm Ó Baoill (1997) "Why Scots is not a Celtic English" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 245-286.

McAllister, Anne (1938) A Year's Course in Speech Training London: ULP.

McClure, J. Derrick (1970) "Some Features of Standard English as Spoken in South-West Scotland", unpublished University of Edinburgh M.Litt. thesis.

McClure, J. Derrick (1994) "The vowels of Scottish English - formants and features" in Jack Windsor Lewis ed. Studies in General and English Phonetics. Essays in Honour of Professor J. D. O'Connor, London: Routledge, 367-78.

McMahon, April (1996) "On the use of the past to explain the present: the history of /r/ in English and Scots" in Derek Britton ed. English Historical Linguistics 1994. Papers from the 8th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (8.ICEHL, Edinburgh, 19-23 September 1994), Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 73-89. Theoretical, no new data.

Mather, James Y. and H. H. Speitel (1975,1977,1986) The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland 3 volumes, London: Croom Helm. The first two volumes deal with lexical material and the third with phonetic.

Pate, Robert (1997) 120 Scotch Poems of Robert Burns in his own Dialect Wigtown: G. C. Book Publishers. Rendered in his own phonetic system. Inspired by Wilson (1925) below, but independent.

Robson, Elizabeth (1926) Speech Training for Scottish Students, Cambridge. PUBLISHER

Romaine, Suzanne (1985) "The problem of short /a/ in Scotland", English World-Wide 6, 165-197.

Speitel, H. H. (1975) "Dialect" in Alan Davies ed. Problems of Language and Learning, London: Heinemann, 34-60. A synchronic model of Scots and Scottish Standard English pronunciation.

Stuart-Smith, Jane and Fiona Tweedie (2000) "Final Report to the Leverhulme Trust: Accent Change in Glaswegian: A Sociophonetic Investigation (F/179/AX)".

Troike, Rudolph (1971) "Overall pattern and generative phonology" in H. B. Allen and G. N. Underwood eds. Readings in American Dialectology, New York, 324-342. Generative dialectology had to allow for an underlying /x/ to accommodate Scots.

Wells, J. C. (1971) "A Scots diphthong and the feature 'continuant'", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 1, 29-32. Concerned with the implications of the TIDE/TIED vowel alternation for the feature analysis of /l/.

Wells, John (1982) Accents of English vol.2 The British Isles Cambridge University Press, accompanying tape. See Chapter 5.2 "Scotland". The Scots-Scottish Standard English continuum does not fit comfortably within Wells' English-based historical schema, leading to distortions, but the descriptions are rich in phonetic detail.

Williams, Irene (1912) Phonetics for Scottish Students: the Sounds of Polite Scottish Described and Compared with those of Polite English, Glasgow: MacLehose and Sons.

Wilson, James (1925) Scottish Poems of Robert Burns in his Native Dialect London: Oxford University Press. Transcriptions in Wilson's own phonetic system.

Wilson, James (1926) The Dialects of Central Scotland, London: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, James (1927) Old Scotch Poems and Songs, London: Oxford University Press. Transcriptions from several dialects.

Winston, M. (1971) "Some Aspects of the Pronunciation of Educated Scots", unpublished University of Edinburgh M.Litt. thesis.

Zai, Rudolph (1942) The Phonology of the Morebattle Dialect, Lucerne: Ræber. Still, with Dieth (1932), the best account of the philology of Scots, though tied to the southern dialect for the modern reflexes.

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22b. Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - Regional

Since all empirical studies are necessarily based on data from one or more regions, this section is rather selective, focussing on work with a descriptive element.

Barry, Michael (1981) "Towards a description of a regional standard pronunciation of English in Ulster" in Michael Barry ed. Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University, 47-51.

Bird, Barbara (1997) "Past and present studies of Hebridean English phonology" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 287-300.

Chirrey, Deborah (1999) "Edinburgh: descriptive material" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 223-229.

Connolly, Linde (1982) "Spoken English in Ulster in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries", Ulster Folklife 28, 33-39.

Connolly, Rosalind (1981) "An Analysis of some Linguistic Information obtained from Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Ulster Poetry", unpublished Queen's University of Belfast PhD thesis.

Dieth, Eugen (1932) A Grammar of the Buchan Dialect, Cambridge University Press.

Johnston, Paul (1979) "A Synchronic and Historical Study of Border Area Bimoric Vowel Systems", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Milroy, James (1981) Regional Accents of English: Belfast, Belfast: Balckstaff.

Mulder, J. W. F. (1974) "Descriptive adequacy in phonology and the vowel phonemes of the Scottish dialects of Angus and Perthshire compared with the Southern English system", La Linguistique 10, 71-91.

Robinson, Chris and Carol-Anne Crawford (2001) Scotspeak. An Educational and Theatrical Reference to Modern Urban Scots, Perth: Scots Language Resource Centre. CD and book.

Shuken, Cynthia (1984) "Highland and Island English" in Peter Trudgill ed. Language in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, 152-166.

Shuken, Cynthia (1985) "Variation in Hebridean English" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 145-158.

Shuken, Cynthia (1986) "Vowel systems in Hebridean English", Scottish Language 5, 131-139.

Stuart-Smith, Jane (1999) "Glasgow: accent and voice quality" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 203-222.

Zai, Rudolph (1942) The Phonology of the Morebattle Dialect, Lucerne: Ræber.

contents

 

22c.  Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - Vowel Length and Aitken’s Law (the Scottish Vowel-Length Rule)

Agutter, Alex (1987) "The dangers of dialect parochialism: the Scottish Vowel Length Rule" in Jan Fisiak, ed. Historical Dialectology: Regional and Social, The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter, 1-21. For the case that the SVLR is distinctive to Scottish English, see April McMahon "Lexical phonology and sound change: the case of the Scottish Vowel Length Rule", Journal of Linguistics 27 (1991), 29-53 or "Lexical phonology and diachrony" in M. Rissanen et al. eds. History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter (1992), 167-190.

Agutter, Alex (1988) "The not-so-Scottish Vowel Length Rule" in John Anderson and Norman Macleod eds. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, Edinburgh: John Donald, 120-132. For the case that the SVLR is distinctive to Scottish English, see April McMahon "Lexical phonology and sound change: the case of the Scottish Vowel Length Rule", Journal of Linguistics 27 (1991), 29-53 or "Lexical phonology and diachrony" in M. Rissanen et al. eds. History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter (1992), 167-190.

* Aitken, A. J. (1981) "The Scottish Vowel Length Rule" in Michael Benskin and M. L. Samuels eds. So Meny People, Longages and Tonges: Philological Essays in Scots and Mediaeval English Presented to Angus McIntosh, Edinburgh: The Middle English Dialect Project, 131-157.

Anderson, John (1993) "Morphology, phonology and the Scottish Vowel-Length Rule", Journal of Linguistics 29, 419-430.

Anderson, John and Charles Jones (1974) "Three theses concerning phonological representations", Journal of Linguistics 10, 1-26. Relevant to Aitken's Law.

Carr, Philip (1992) "Strict cyclicity, structure preservation and the Scottish Vowel-Length Rule", Journal of Linguistics 28, 91-114.

Collinge, N. E. (1985) The Laws of Indo-European, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins. Includes Aitken's Law (the Scottish Vowel Length Rule).

Ewen, C. J. (1977) "Aitken's Law and the phonatory gesture in dependency phonology", Lingua 44, 307-329.

Gburek, Hubert (1986) "Changes in the structure of the English verb system: evidence from Scots" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 115-123. Early evidence for Aitken's Law (the Scottish Vowel Length Rule).

Glauser, Beat (1988) "Aitken's context in Northumberland, Cumberland and Durham: a computer assisted analysis of material from the Survey of English Dialects (SED)" in Alan Thomas ed. Methods in Dialectology Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 611-624.

Hewlett, Nigel, Ben Matthews and James Scobbie (1999) "Vowel duration in Scottish English speaking children" in J. Ohala et al., eds. Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences vol.3, 2157-2160.

Lass, Roger (1973) "A case for making phonological rules state things that don't happen", Edinburgh Working Papers in Linguistics 3, 10-18. On Aitken's Law.

Lass, Roger (1974) "Linguistic orthogenesis? Scots vowel quantity and the English length conspiracy" in John Anderson and Charles Jones eds. Historical Linguistics II. Theory and Description on Phonology. (Proceedings of the First International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Edinburgh, 2-7 September 1973), Amsterdam and Oxford, 311-352.

McClure, J. Derrick (1977) "Vowel duration in a Scottish accent", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 7, 10-16. Reliability has been questioned, as McClure is his own experimental subject; see Alex Agutter "The not-so-Scottish Vowel Length Rule" in John Anderson and Norman Macleod eds. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, Edinburgh: John Donald (1988), 120-132.

McKenna, Gordon (1987) "Wha's like us? Aitken's law and the voicing effect revisited", Work in Progress 20, Department of Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, 156-END PAGE NUMBER.

McKenna, Gordon (1989) "Vowel Duration in the Standard English of Scotland", unpublished University of Edinburgh M.Litt. thesis.

McMahon, April (1990) "Constraining Lexical Phonology: Evidence from English Vowels", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

McMahon, April (1991) "Lexical phonology and sound change: the case of the Scottish Vowel Length Rule", Journal of Linguistics 27, 29-53.

McMahon, April (1992) "Lexical phonology and diachrony" in M. Rissanen et al. eds. History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 167-190. Defends the Scottishness of the Scottish Vowel Length Rule.

Pullum, G. K. (1974) "Sheltering environments and negative contexts: a case against making phonological rules state things that don't happen", Edinburgh Working Papers in Linguistics 14, 31-41.

Scobbie, James, Nigel Hewlett and Alice Turk (1999) "Standard English in Edinburgh and Glasgow: the Scottish Vowel Length Rule revealed" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 230-245.

Scobbie, James, Alice Turk and Nigel Hewlett (1999) "Morphemes, phonetics and lexical items: the case of the Scottish Vowel Length Rule" in J. Ohala et al., eds. Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences vol.2, 1617-1620.

Wells, J. C. (1971) "A Scots diphthong and the feature 'continuant'", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 1, 29-32. Concerned with the implications of the TIDE/TIED vowel alternation for the feature analysis of /l/.

 contents

 

22d.  Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - Supra-segmental

Brown, Gillian, Karen Currie and Joan Kenworthy (1980) Questions of Intonation London: Croom Helm. Includes Edinburgh data.

Cruttenden, Alan (1981) "Falls and rises: meanings and universals", Journal of Linguistics 17:1, 77-92.

Currie, Karen (1979) "Intonation Systems of Scottish English", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis. Includes Glasgow material not used in Gillian Brown, Karen Currie and Joan Kenworthy, Questions of Intonation London: Croom Helm (1980).

Currie, Karen (1979) "Contour systems of one variety of Scottish English", Language and Speech 22, 1-20. Edinburgh data.

Douglas-Cowie, Ellen, Robert Cowie and Joan Rahilly (1995) "The social distribution of intonation patterns in Belfast" in J. W. Lewis ed. Studies in General and English Phonetics in Honours of J. D. O'Connor, London: Routledge, 180-186.

Esling, John (1978) "Voice Quality in Edinburgh - A Sociolinguistic and Phonetic Study", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Esling, John (1978) "The identification of features of voice quality in social groups", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 7, 18-23.

Hill, Trevor (1963) "Phonemic and prosodic analysis in linguistic geography", Orbis 12, 449-55.

Jarman, E. and A. Cruttenden (1976) "Belfast intonation and the myth of the fall", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 6, 4-12.

Kenworthy, Joanne (1978) "The intonation of questions in one variety of Scottish English", Lingua 44, 267-282.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. with the assistance of G. D. Trevelyan (1973) "Language, Education and Employment in Glasgow. Report to the Social Science Research Council". Contains material on intonation not included in Language, Social Class and Education. A Glasgow Study, Edinburgh University Press, 1977.

McClure, J. Derrick (1980) "Western Scottish intonation: a preliminary study" in Linda Waugh and C. H. van Schooneveld eds. The Melody of Language, Baltimore: University Park Press, 201-218.

MacKenzie Beck, J. M. (1988) "Organic Variation and Voice Quality", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Mayo, C. (1996) "Prosodic Transcription of Glasgow English: An Evaluation Study of GlaToBI", unpublished University of Edinburgh MSc thesis.

Melchers, Gunnel (1984) "Is the structure of the syllable in Shetland dialect 'Scandinavian'?" in Claes-Christian Elert et al. eds. Nordic Prosody III. Papers from a Symposium, Acta Universitatis Umensis, Umeå Studies in the Humanities 59, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 179-186.

Rahilly, Joan (1994) "Phonetic characteristics of prominence in Belfast intonation", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 12, 225-245.

Rahilly, Joan (1997) "Aspects of prosody in Hiberno-English: the case of Belfast" in Jeffrey Kallen ed Focus on Ireland, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins 109-132.

Stuart-Smith, Jane (1999) "Glasgow: accent and voice quality" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 203-222.

Yule, George (1980) "Speaker's topics and major paratones", Lingua 52, 33-47. Based on an Edinburgh accent.

Yule, George (1980) "The functions of phonological prominence in one variety of Scottish English", Archivum Linguisticum New Series 11, 31-46.

contents

 

22e. Modern Scots: Scots and Scottish Standard English Phonology - Historical

Beal, Joan (1996) "The Jocks and the Geordies: modified standards in eighteenth-century pronouncing dictionaries" in Derek Britton ed. English Historical Linguistics 1994. Papers from the 8th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (8.ICEHL, Edinburgh, 19-23 September 1994), Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 363-382.

Chirrey, Deborah (1995/96) "Phonetic descriptions of Scottish accents: a historical perspective", Scottish Language14/15, 190-203.

Connolly, Linde (1982) "Spoken English in Ulster in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries", Ulster Folklife 28, 33-39.

Connolly, Rosalind (1981) "An Analysis of some Linguistic Information obtained from Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Ulster Poetry", unpublished Queen's University of Belfast PhD thesis.

Holmberg, Börje (1956) James Douglas on English Pronunciation c.1740, Lund Studies in English 26.

Johnston, Paul (1979) "A Synchronic and Historical Study of Border Area Bimoric Vowel Systems", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Jones, Charles ed. (1991) A Treatise on the Provincial Dialect of Scotland by Sylvester Douglas, Edinburgh University Press. Useful modern phonetic interpretation of 18th sources, but reconstructions are not based on a knowledge of Scots phonology. Mostly on Scottish Standard English, which he wrongly treats as derived from Scots by processes of sound change, rather than language contact.

Jones, Charles (1993) "Scottish Standard English in the late eighteenth century", Transactions of the Philological Society 91:1, 95-131. Useful modern phonetic interpretation of 18th sources, but reconstructions are not based on a knowledge of Scots phonology. Mostly on Scottish Standard English, which he wrongly treats as derived from Scots by processes of sound change, rather than language contact.

Jones, Charles (1994) "Alexander Geddes: an eighteenth-century Scottish orthoepist and dialectologist", Folia Linguistica Historica 15, 71-103.

Jones, Charles (1995) A Language Suppressed. The Pronunciation of the Scots Language in the 18th Century, Edinburgh: John Donald. Not informed by a knowledge of the previous literature on Scots philology. Mostly on Scottish Standard English, which he wrongly treats as derived from Scots by processes of sound change, rather than language contact.

Jones, Charles (1997) "Phonology" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 267-344. Useful modern phonetic interpretation of 18th sources, but reconstructions are not based on a knowledge of Scots phonology. Mostly on Scottish Standard English, which he wrongly treats as derived from Scots by processes of sound change, rather than language contact.

Macafee, Caroline (2002) "The impact of anglicisation on the phonology of Scots: a keethin sicht" in Katja Lenz and Ruth Möhlig eds. Of Dyuersitie & Chaunge of Langage: Essays Presented to Manfred Görlach on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday Heidelberg: C. Winter, 240-256.

Mather, James (1954, 1993) "Phonetics in Scotland in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries - A Study in the History of a Technique", unpublished University of Edinburgh Postgraduate Diploma in Phonetics. The original apparently disappeared from the Department of Linguistics, but a revised version of 1993 is extant.

contents

 

23. Modern Scots: Orthography and Spelling Reform

Spelling recommendations are available on request from Scottish Language Dictionaries www.sldl.org.uk. Alternative recommendations are available in "Report o the Scots Spellin Comatee", Lallans 56 (2000), 50-106.

Allan, Alasdair (1995) "Scots spellin - ettlin efter the quantum lowp", English World-Wide 16:1, 61-103.

Allan, Alasdair (1998) "New Founs fae Auld Larachs: Leid-Plannin for Scots" unpublished University of Aberdeen PhD thesis.

CannieSpell (1998) Edinburgh: Scottish National Dictionary Association. A Scots spellchecker for PC (Windows 95/97).

Douglas, Sheila (1998) "Sir James Wilson and his common sense approach to the Scots language", Scottish Language 17, 16-21.

Farrow, Kenneth (2000) "Sum ither pynts anent spellin", Lallans 57, 53-56.

Glen, Duncan (1970) "The spelling of Scots", Scotia 3, 1-4.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1991) "'Cos it izny spelt when they say it': displaying dialect in writing", American Speech 66:3, 280-291.

Leith, Dick ( ) "On transcribing Scots folktale performance", Scottish Studies DETAILS

Macafee, Caroline (2000) "Lea the leid alane", Lallans 57, 56-63.

MacBain, James (1999) The Soun o Burns Glasgow: Scotsoun Publications. Also tape. A reading guide which respells words originally spelled as English, to indicate pronunciation.

McClure, J. Derrick (1981) "The spelling of Scots: a phoneme-based system", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 12, 25-29.

McClure, J. Derrick (1985, 1995) "The debate on Scots orthography" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 37-43. Originally published in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 203-209.

McClure, J. Derrick (1997) "The spelling of Scots: a difficulty" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes around the World I. General Studies, British Isles, North America. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins (1997), 173-184.

MacDiarmid, Hugh (1968), Letter, Lines Review, p. 33. Authorises future editors to alter the spelling of his work.

Mackie, Albert (1955) "The spelling of Scots", Lines Review 9, 29-31. Includes the Scots Style Sheet.

Mackie, Albert (1968) "The spelling of Scots", Scottish International 1, 35-38.

Macleod, Iseabail (1993) "Research in progress: some problems in Scottish lexicography", English World-Wide 14:1, 115-128. Recommends the <oo> spelling to avoid ambiguity.

Macleod, Iseabail (2000) "Spellin at the SNDA", Lallans 57, 65-66.

Purves, David (1975) "The spelling of Scots", Lallans 4, 26-27.

Purves, David (1979) "A Scots orthography", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 9, 61-76.

Purves, David (1997, revised 2002) A Scots Grammar. Scots Grammar and Usage Edinburgh: The Saltire Society. See pp. 57-61.

Purves, David (2000) "Repone ti Report o the Scots Spellin Comatee", Lallans 57, 50-3.

"Report o the Scots Spellin Comatee" (2000), Lallans 56, 50-106. Some responses were published in the following issue.

Scots Language Society [David Purves] (1985) "Spelling recommendations", Lallans 24, 18-19. Reprinted in David Purves, A Scots Grammar. Scots Grammar and Usage Edinburgh: The Saltire Society (1997, revised 2002).

Scots Style Sheet (1955) Lines Review 9, 30-31 (with introduction by Albert Mackie, 29-30). Reprinted Scottish International 1 (January 1968); Charles King ed. Twelve Modern Scottish Poets London: Hodder and Stoughton (1971), 17-18; Lallans 2 (1974), 4-5; David Purves, A Scots Grammar. Scots Grammar and Usage Edinburgh: The Saltire Society (1997, revised 2002).

Stirling, A. (1994) "On a standardised spelling for Scots", Scottish Language 13, 88-93.

 Tait, John (2000) "A tait wanchancie", Lallans 57, 67-73.

* Wilson, James (1926) The Dialects of Central Scotland, London: Oxford University Press. See pages 194 ff.

contents

 

24a. Modern Scots: Status and Identity - General and Political

Aitken, A. J. (1981, 1990) "The good old Scots tongue: does Scots have an identity?" in Einar Haugen et al. eds. Minority Languages Today, Edinburgh University Press, 72-90.

Aitken, A. J. (1984) "What's so special about Scots?", Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum Journal 10, 27-44.

Aitken, A. J. (1985) "Is Scots a language?", English Today 3, 41-45.

Allan, Alasdair (2000) "Language and politics: a perspective from Scotland" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 127-131.

Angus, David (1988) "Whither Scotspeak?", The Scots Magazine 129:4, 366-368.

Calder, Angus (1995) "Scots language in transition. Some thoughts arising from Hamish Henderson's essay 'Flower and iron of the truth'", Chapman 82, 63-70.

Craigie, William (1924) "The present state of the Scots tongue" in W. A. Craigie et al., The Scottish Tongue. A Series of Lectures on the Vernacular Language of Lowland Scotland delivered to the members of the Vernacular Circle of the Burns Club of London London: Cassell and Company, 3-46.

Dósa, Attila (1999) "Language, dialect, or accent?", Scottish Language 18, 69-86.

Douglas, Sheila (1998) "Development of educational materials" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 115-120. Included in this section because of her position that "many people speak Scots badly because no-one has ever taught them to take pride in it".

Easton, Norman (1982) "The people's tongue. Socialist thochts on Scotlan's languages", Radical Scotland 1 (Summer 1982), 16-20.

Falconer, Gavin (2001) "The Scots leid in the new poleitical institutions" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 135-158.

Farren, Seán (2000) "Institutional infrastructure post-Good Friday Agreement: the new institutions and devolved government" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 121-125.

* FitzDuff, Mari (2000) "Language and politics in a global perspective" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 75-80.

Fladmark, J. M. (1994) The Wealth of a Nation. Heritage as a Cultural Competitive Asset, Aberdeen: The Robert Gordon University Professorial Lectures.

Fladmark, J. M. (1995) "Towards a trilingual Scotland" in J. M. Fladmark ed. Sharing the Earth: Local Identity in Global Culture. Papers Presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1995 London: Donhead, 311-318.

* Görlach, Manfred (1997, 1997) "Text types and the history of Scots", Journal of English Linguistics 25, 209-230. Revised in Manfred Görlach Even More Englishes. Studies 1996-1997 Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 55-77.

Görlach, Manfred (1997) "Language and nation: the concept of linguistic identity in the history of English", English World-Wide 18:1, 1-34.

Hadden, Tom (2000) "Should a Bill of Rights for Northern Ireland protect language rights?" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 111-120.

Hardie, Kim (1995/96) "Scots: matters of identity and nationalism", Scottish Language 14/15, 141-147.

Henderson, Hamish, Hugh MacDiarmid and David Craig (1959,1964), Correspondence in the letters page of the Scotsman, 1 December 1959; 7,13,19,24,28 March 1964; 3,10,15,18,24 April 1964.

Herbison, Ivan (1989) Language, Literature, and Cultural Identity: An Ulster-Scots Perspective, Ballymena: Dunclug Press.

Herbison, Ivan (1993) "Oor ain native tung: Talking Scots", Fortnight, Special Supplement, Talking Scots, April 1993, 13-15.

Herbison, Ivan (1997) "'The rest is silence'; some remarks on the disappearance of Ulster-Scots poetry" in John Erskine and Gordon Lucy eds. Cultural Traditions in Northern Ireland: Varieties of Scottishness: Exploring the Ulster Scottish Connection. Prodeedings of the Cultural Traditions Group Conference March 1996, Belfast: The Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast, 129-145.

Herdman, John (1972) "The progress of Scots", Akros 7:20, 31-42.

Horsbroch, Dauvit (1999) "Scots as a European language 1500-1700", Scottish Language 18, 1-16.

Horsbroch, Dauvit (2000) "Cauld kail fae Embro", Lallans 56, 121-127. The treatment of Scots by the Scottish Office and latterly the Scottish Executive.

Horsbroch, Dauvit (2000) "Mair as a sheuch atween Scotland an Ulster: twa policie for the Scots leid?" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 133-141.

Horsbroch, Dauvit (2001) "A twalmonth an a wee tait forder" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 123-134.

Kallen, Jeffrey (1999) "Irish English and the Ulster Scots controversy", Ulster Folklife 45, 70-88.

Kay, Billy (1995) "Mair licht on the mither tongue: Scots as a national language" in J. M. Fladmark ed. Sharing the Earth: Local Identity in Global Culture. Papers Presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1995 London: Donhead, 299-309.

Kernohan, Robert (1991) "Can Scots make a comeback?", Contemporary Review 258:1501 (February 1991), 78-83. Thoughts on Lorimer's New Testament

Kirk, John (as 1998) "Ulster Scots: realities and myths", Ulster Folklife 44, 69-93.

Lord Laird of Artigarvan (2001) "Language policy and Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 37-41.

Lenz, Katja (2002) "Losses and gains: the case of Scots in Scotland" in Gerardo Mazzaferro ed. The English Language and Power, Alessandria: Edizioni dell’Orso, 181-200.

Macafee, Caroline (1981,1985) "Nationalism and the Scots Renaissance now" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 7-18. Originally published English World-Wide 1:2, 29-38.

McCafferty, Kevin (1996) "Frae 'wile norn aksints' tae oor ain national leid?", Causeway 3:1 (Spring 1996), 39-44; 3:2 (Summer 1996), 48-53.

McClure, J. Derrick (1984, 1995) "Lowland Scots: an ambivalent national tongue" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 5-19. Originally published Multilingua 3, 143-151.

McClure, J. Derrick (1998) "What is the Scots language?" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 7-18.

McGugan, Irene (2001) "Scots in the twenty-first century" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 29-36.

McHardy, Stuart (1995) "Flowers of Scotland: Scots in Scotland" in Dylan Iorwerth ed. A Week in Europe, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 120-126.

McLeod, Wilson (1998) "Scotland's languages in Scotland's Parliament", Scottish Affairs 24 (summer 1998), 68-82. 

Mac Póilin, Aodán (1999) "Language, identity and politics in Northern Ireland", Ulster Folklife 45, 106-132.

Montgomery, Michael (1999) "The position of Ulster Scots", Ulster Folklife 45, 89-105.

Neill, William (1970) "Language and Scotland", Catalyst for the Scottish Viewpoint 3:2 (Spring 1970), 10-11.

Neill, William (1976) "Heat, light and language", Scotia Review 12, 33-36.

Ó Riagáin, Dónall (2000) "Language rights as human rights in Europe and in Northern Ireland" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 65-73.

Ó Riagáin, Dónall (2001) "Language rights/human rights in Northern Ireland and the role of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 43-54.

Parsley, Ian (2000) "Language, discrimination and the Good Friday Agreement: the case of Ulster-Scots" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 89-90.

Parsley, Ian (2001) "Ulster-Scots: politicisation or survival?" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 177-180.

Pollner, Clausdirk (1989) "From riches to rags - from rags to riches: the case of Scots and English in Scotland" in P. Zenzinger ed. Scotland: Literature, Culture, Politics, Heidelberg: Winter, Anglistik und Englischunterricht 38/39, 51-69.

Purves, David (1997) "The raukil tung - the current state of Scots", The Herald, 25 January.

Rooney, Edward (2001) "Language policy implementation: a DCAL civil servant’s perspective" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 55-60.

Russell, Michael (2001) "Language and politics in Scotland" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 23-28.

Scott, Alexander (1979) "An interview with Hugh MacDiarmid", Studies in Scottish Literature 14, 1-22.

Scott, Paul H. (1998) "The future of the Scots language", Scottish Affairs 24 (summer 1998), 83-89. Review article - recent publications and developments, including the Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights.

Stephens, Meic (1976) Linguistic Minorities in Western Europe, Llandysul: Gower. See "The Lowland Scots", 78-102.

Strauss, Dietrich et al. (1986) "The Scots-English Round-Table Discussion 'Scots: its development and present conditions - potential modes of its future'" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 79-99.

Trudgill, Peter (1992) "The Ausbau - sociolinguistics of minority languages in Western and Central Europe" in Gunilla Blom et al. eds. Minority Language. The Scandinavian Experience. Papers Read at the Conference in Edinburgh 9-11 November 1990, Oslo: Nordic Language Secretariat, 11-19.

Wood, Richard (1977) "Sociolinguistics in Scotland", Sociolinguistic Newsletter 8, 3-9.

contents

 

24b. Modern Scots: Status and Identity - Demo-Linguistics

Macafee, Caroline (1996) "The Case for Scots in the 2001 Census" unpublished paper submitted to the General Register Office (Scotland) and the Scottish Office on behalf of the main Scots language bodies, www.abdn.ac.uk/~enl038/case.htm.

* Macafee, Caroline (2000) "The demography of Scots: the lessons of the Census campaign", Scottish Language 19, 1-44.

Macafee, Caroline (2001) "Scots: hauf empty or hauf fu?" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen's University, 159-68.

*[Iain Máté] (1996) Scots Language. A Report on the Scots Language Research carried out by the General Register Office for Scotland in 1996, Edinburgh: General Register Office (Scotland).

* Murdoch, Steve (1995) Language Politics in Scotland, Aberdeen University Scots Leid Quorum. Later copies contain a silent correction to the estimated number of speakers, adjusted for the different sizes of the regions.

contents

 

24c. Modern Scots: Status and Identity - Language Attitudes

See also separate section on education.

Aitken, A. J. (1971/72) "Gaelic, Scots and Gullane", Scottish Literary News 2, 45-46.

Aitken, A. J. (1982) "Bad Scots: some superstitions about Scots speech", Scottish Language 1, 30-44. Summary in J. Derrick McClure ed., "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1 (1981), 35-40.

Bratt, M. F. (1974) "Evaluative Reactions to Speech Varieties in Five Year Old Children", unpublished University of Edinburgh M.Litt. thesis.

Brown, Ian (1995) "Problems of defining 'standard' Scots: some linguistic and theatrical aspects", Zeitschrift fü r Anglistik und Amerikanistik 43:4, 291-302.

Cheyne, W. M. (1970) "Stereotyped reactions to speakers with Scottish and English regional accents", British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 9, 77-79.

Donaldson, William (1998) "Language and identity: modern sources of written Scots" in J. M. Fladmark ed. In Search of Heritage: As Pilgrim or Tourist? Papers Presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1998 Shaftesbury, Dorset: Donhead, 193-204. 

Gilkes, Edelweisse (1983) "The Salience of Accent in Person Perception", unpublished University of Strathclyde PhD thesis.

Görlach, Manfred (2001) "Scots: the view from outside" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language Links. The Languages of Scotland and Ireland Belfast: Queen's University, 181-194. Reprinted in Manfred Görlach, Still More Englishes (2002) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 87-98.

Hardie, Kim (1997) "Lowland Scots: Language Politics and Identity", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Horsburgh, Davie and Steve Murdoch ([1997]) Daena Haud yer Wheisht, Haud yer Ain! Transcreives o the General Register Office (Scotland) Cognitive Research Programme anent the Scots Leid, Summer 1996, Aiberdeen Univairsitie Scots Leid Quorum.

Iacuaniello, Flavia (1992/93) "Linguistic awareness and attitudes in a sample of Scottish speakers", Scottish Language 11/12, 62-71.

Jack, R. D. S. (1993) "Of lion and unicorn: literary traditions at war" in R. D. S. Jack and Kevin McGinley eds. Of Lion and Unicorn. Essays on Anglo-Scottish Literary Relations in Honour of Professor John MacQueen Edinburgh: Quadriga Publishing, 67-99.

King, Anne (1995) "Oor Wullie in beyond the pail scandal and other such wonders", Edit: The University of Edinburgh Magazine 8 (summer 1995), 17-19.

Knoke, Irene (1997) "Attitudes towards Belfast Accents", unpublished M.A. dissertation, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg.

Letley, Emma (1988) "Language and nineteenth-century Scottish fiction" in Douglas Gifford ed. The History of Scottish Literature vol.3, Nineteenth Century, Aberdeen University Press, 321-336.

* Letley, Emma (1988) From Galt to Douglas Brown. Nineteenth Century Fiction and Scots Language, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Löw, Danielle (1997) "The Doric in Pitmedden: Language Attitudes in a Scottish Village" unpublished dissertation, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg.

Löw, Danielle (2001) "Language attitudes in Pitmedden (Aberdeenshire): some new findings on instrumental and affective/integrative attitudes" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language Links. The Languages of Scotland and Ireland Belfast: Queen's University, 133-148.

Macafee, Caroline (1994) Traditional Dialect in the Modern World: A Glasgow Case Study, Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Macafee, Caroline (1994) "How it feels to be thick as a brick" in Gunnel Melchers and Nils-Lennart Johannesson eds. 111-117.

Macafee, Caroline and Briege McGarrity (1999) "Scots language attitudes and language maintenance" in Clive Upton and Katie Wales eds., Dialectal Variation in English: Proceedings of the Harold Orton Centenary Conference 1998 (Leeds Studies in English 30), 165-179. Main findings and implications of Briege McGarrity, "A Sociolinguistic Study of Attitudes towards and Proficiency in the Doric Dialect in Aberdeen", unpublished University of Aberdeen MPhil thesis, 1998.

McArthur, Tom (1998) The English Languages Cambridge University Press. "Scots and Southron", 138-159. Includes a selection of quotations from 1789 on, illustrating attitudes towards the autonomy of Scots.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1974) "Linguistic insecurity" in J. Derrick McClure ed. The Scots Language in Education, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 3, 35-43.

* Macaulay, Ronald K. S. with the assistance of G. D. Trevelyan (1977) Language, Social Class and Education. A Glasgow Study, Edinburgh University Press.

McClure, J. Derrick (1985, 1995) "The Pinkerton Syndrome" in J. Derrick Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 57-67. Originally published Chapman 41, 2-8.

* McGarrity, Briege (1998) "A Sociolinguistic Study of Attitudes towards and Proficiency in the Doric Dialect in Aberdeen", unpublished University of Aberdeen MPhil thesis. Main findings summarised in Caroline Macafee and Briege McGarrity (1999) "Scots language attitudes and language maintenance" in Clive Upton and Katie Wales eds., Dialectal Variation in English: Proceedings of the Harold Orton Centenary Conference 1998 (Leeds Studies in English 30), 165-179.

* Melchers, Gunnel (1985) "'Knappin', 'Proper English', 'Modified Scottish'. Some language attitudes in the Shetland Isles" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 87-100.

Melchers, Gunnel (1996) "'We're aa da same here - but different, too': Some notes on regional linguistic variation in Shetland" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 44-51.

Menzies, Janet (1991) "An investigation of attitudes to Scots and Glasgow dialect among secondary school pupils", Scottish Language 10, 30-46.

Middleton, Sheena (1999) Doric: The Cock of the North: Points of View on a Linguistic Compass: Interviews with North East Folk, Aberdeen: Elphinstone Institute, University of Aberdeen.

Millar, Sharon (1990) "The role of ethnic identity in accent evaluation in Northern Ireland" in Graham Caie et al. ed. Proceedings of the Fourth Scandinavian Conference on English Studies, Copenhagen: Department of English, University of Copenhagen, 243-253.

Miller, Jim (1998) "Scots: a sociolinguistic perspective" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 45-56. Over-simplified.

Milroy, Lesley and P. McClenaghan (1977) "Stereotyped reactions to four educated accents in Ulster", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 2, 1- 10. Includes Scots and RP.

* Milton, Colin (1992) "Language, class and education in twentieth-century Scottish writing", English World-Wide 13:2, 219-251.

O'Kane, D. (1977) "Overt and covert prestige in Belfast vernacular speakers: the results of self-report tests", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 2:3, 1-23.

Porter, Gerald (1999) "The ideology of misrepresentation: Scots in English broadsides" in Irma Taavitsainen et al. eds Writing in Nonstandard English Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 361-374.

Romaine, Suzanne (1980) "Stylistic variation and evaluative reactions to speech: problems in the investigation of linguistic attitudes in Scotland", Language and Speech 23:3, 213-231.

Ross, Sheena et al. (1995) "Students' judgements of children based on social class-linked features of Glasgow pronunciation", Education in the North new series 3, 19-28.

* Sandred, Karl Inge (1983) Good or Bad Scots? Attitudes to Optional Lexical and Grammatical Usages in Edinburgh, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Studia Anglistica Upsaliensia 48.

Sandred, Karl Inge (1985) "Overt and covert prestige: evaluative boundaries in a speech community" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 69-86.

Tait, John (2001) "Whit is Shetlandic?", Lallans 58, 7-16.

Tajfel, Henri et al. (1972) "The devaluation by children of their own national and ethnic group: two case studies", British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 2:3, 235-243.

Wilson, Colin (1998) "Scots: language or dialect? - a reply", Cencrastus 61, 11-13. Reply to Kenneth Wilson.

Wilson, Kenneth (1998) "Scots: language or dialect?", Cencrastus 59, 4-5.

 contents

 

24d. Modern Scots: Status and Identity - Comparisons between Scots and other         Minority Languages

Allan, Alasdair (1998) "New Founs fae Auld Larachs: Leid-Plannin for Scots" unpublished University of Aberdeen PhD thesis. Polemical, little analysis.

Dunbar, Robert (2001) "Minority language rights regimes: an analytical framework, Scotland, and emerging European norms" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 231-254.

Fladmark, J. M. (1995) "Towards a trilingual Scotland" in J. M. Fladmark ed. Sharing the Earth: Local Identity in Global Culture. Papers Presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1995 London: Donhead, 311-318. Slight. Comparison with Norwegian.

Görlach, Manfred (1985, 1990) "Scots and Low German: the social history of two minority languages" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 19-36. Reprinted in Manfred Görlach Studies in the History of the English Language, Heidelberg: Winter, 144-152. Also "Niederdeutsch und Schottisch: eine vergleichende Socialgeschichte" in F. W. Michelsen and G. Spiekermann eds. Dat en Spoor Blifft. Ulf Bichel zum 60. Geburtstag, Gottingen: PUBLISHER (1985), 163-180. Also "Schottish und Niederdeutsch - zwei Sprachen im Verborgenen" in Jahresgabe 1987 Heide in Holstein: Klaus-Groth-Gesellschaft E. V., 133-145.

Görlach, Manfred (1991) "Jamaica and Scotland - bilingual or bidialectal?" in Manfred Görlach, Englishes: Studies in Varieties of English 1984-1988, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 69-89. Offers a guesstimate of 20% of the population of Scotland speaking Scots - a much lower figure than subsequently provided by empirical research (see section on demo-linguistics).

Görlach, Manfred (1997) "Text types and the history of Scots", Journal of English Linguistics 25, 209-230. Revised in Manfred Görlach Even More Englishes. Studies 1996-1997 Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 55-77.

Grant, Nigel (1997) "The Scots leid an ither wee toungs: hou can Scots haud up in Europe?", Chapman 86, 25-30.

Hagemann, Susanne (1994) "Language questions in Europe: Scotland and Italy compared" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 96-105.

Horsburgh, Davie and Steve Murdoch (1998) Kennin yer Earse fae yer Alba: The Scottish Office, the Gaelic Lobby and the Scots Language Aberdeen: Aiberdeen Univairsitie Scots Leid Quorum.

Kerrigan, Catherine (1993) "Empire and nation: literary language in Scotland after the Great War" in R. D. S. Jack and Kevin McGinley eds. Of Lion and Unicorn. Essays on Anglo-Scottish Literary Relations in Honour of Professor John MacQueen Edinburgh: Quadriga Publishing, 171-179. Some comparison with Achebe's choice of English rather than Igbo.

Macleod, Stewart (1989) "Language Death in Scotland: A Linguistic Analysis of the Process of Language Death and Linguistic Interference in Scottish Gaelic and Scots Language" unpublished University of Aberdeen PhD thesis. Slight.

Meier, Hans H. (1977) "Scots is not alone: The Swiss and Low German analogues" in A. J. Aitken et al. eds. Bards and Makars: Scottish Language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance, Glasgow University Press, 201-213.

Strauss, Dietrich (1978) "Scots is not alone - further comparative considerations" in Jean-Jacques Blanchot and Claude Graf eds. Actes du 2e Colloque de Langue et de Litterature Ecossaises (Moyen Age et Renaissance), University of Strasbourg, 80-97.

Watson, Harry (1982) "Halldór Kiljan Laxness and the modern Scottish novel: some sociolinguistic parallels", Scandinavica. An International Journal of Scandinavian Studies 21:2, 179-190.

Watson, Harry (1992) "Scots and Nynorsk: minority languages?" in Gunilla Blom et al. eds. Minority Languages - the Scandinavian Experience. Papers Read at the Conference in Edinburgh 9-11 November 1990, Oslo: Nordic Language Secretariat, 93-118.

contents

 

24e. Modern Scots: Status and Identity - Synthetic Scots and Standardisation

On spelling reform specifically, see modorthog.

Aitken, A. J. (1980) "New Scots: the problems" in J. Derrick McClure et al., The Scots Language: Planning for Modern Usage, Edinburgh: Ramsay Head, 45-63.

Allan, Alasdair (1998) "New Founs fae Auld Larachs: Leid-Plannin for Scots" unpublished University of Aberdeen PhD thesis.

Annand, J. K. (1978) "Anent Standard Scots", Lallans 11, PAGE NUMBERS.

Anonymous (1978) "A Scottish viewpoint II: a new sang for an auld leid. An interview with Mr Robert Henryson, Principal Teacher of English, Spens Academy, Fife, conducted by an Uphauder (Official) of the Society of Lowland Scottish Studies", Akros 13:37, 40-51.

Eagle, Andy (2001) "Wha ye writin for?" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 169-176.

Graham, William (1977) The Scots Word Book Edinburgh: The Ramsay Head Press. Prescriptive language planning.

Kirk, John (2000) "Two Ullans texts" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 33-44.

Kirk, John (2000) "The new written Scots dialect in present-day Northern Ireland" in Magnus Ljung ed. Language Structure and Variation. A Festschrift for Gunnel Melchers, Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Stockholm Studies in English, 92, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 121-138.

Kirk, John (2000) "The new written Scots dialect in present-day Northern Ireland" in Magnus Ljung ed. Language Structure and Variation. A Festschrift for Gunnel Melchers, Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Stockholm Studies in English, 92, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 121-138.

Kloss, Heinz (1978) Die Entwicklung neuer germanischer Kultursprachen seit 1800, 2nd. edn., Dusseldorf: Schwann. See "Niederschottish (Lallans)", 256-263.

Kloss, Heinz (1986) "Interlingual communication: danger and chance for the smaller tongues" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 73-77. Advice for the revival of Scots.

[Lovie, Rod et al.] (1995) Innin ti the Scots Leid/An Introduction to the Scots Language, Aiberdeen Univairsitie Scots Leid Quorum. Prescriptive language planning.

McClure, J. Derrick (1974) "Modern Scots prose writing" in J. Derrick McClure ed. The Scots Language in Education, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 3, 54-67.

McClure, J. Derrick (1979, 1995) "The concept of Standard Scots" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 20-36. Originally published Chapman 23/24, 90-99.

McClure, J. Derrick (1980) "Developing Scots as a national language" in J. Derrick McClure et al. The Scots Language: Planning for Modern Usage, Edinburgh: Ramsay Head, 11-41.

McClure, J. Derrick et al. (1980) The Scots Language: Planning for Modern Usage, Edinburgh: Ramsay Head.

McClure, J. Derrick et al. (1981, 1985) "Our ain leid? The predicament of a Scots writer", English World-Wide 1:2, 3-28. Shortened version in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 181-201.

McClure, J. Derrick (1981), review of William Graham The Scots Word Book (1977), in Language Problems and Language Planning 5:1, 76-82.

McClure, J. Derrick (1981, 1995) "The synthesisers of Scots" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 190-199. Originally published in Einar Haugen et al eds. Minority Language Today, Edinburgh University Press, 91-99.

McClure, J. Derrick ([1993]) "What about the mither tongue?", Scotland's Languages, launch issue, 14-15.

Meier, H. H. (1973) Review of The Scottish National Dictionary VI:III to IX:II, English Studies 54:3, 306-308. Comments on the omission of revival vocabulary.

Milton, Colin (1986) "Hugh MacDiarmid and North-East Scots", Scottish Language 5, 39-47.

Parsley, Ian (2001) "Authenticity of Scots" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Linguistic Politics. Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 181-186.

Prior, Patrick (1980) "The Broons", The Scottish Review 20, 37-41.

Purves, David (1974) "Economical Scots", Lallans 3, 22-23.

* Purves, David (1997) The Way Forward for the Scots Language, Forward Series 4, Scottish Centre for Economic and Social Research, Peterhead.

The Scottish Office (1994) "Government support for Gaelic and Scots" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 175-180.

Smith, Sydney Goodsir (1948) "In defence of Lallans", The Scotia Review 23 PAGE NUMBERS

Sobey, Anne (1993) "Scots realpolitik" Fortnight 318, special supplement Talking Scots, April 1993, 6-7.

Soutar, William (1938) "Faith in the vernacular", The Voice of Scotland 1:1, 22-23.

Strauss, Dietrich et al. (1986) "The Scots-English Round-Table Discussion 'Scots: its development and present conditions - potential modes of its future'" in Dietrich Strauss and Horst Drescher eds. Scottish language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance: Fourth International Conference, 1984, Proceedings, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 79-99.

Templeton, Janet (1973) "Lallans", Lallans 1, 3-4.

Wagner, G. (1952) "The use of Lallans for prose", Journal of English and Germanic Philology 51, 212-225.

Wilson, Colin ([1993?]) "A futher for Scots as a leid o ilka day speik", Scotland's Languages 2, 39-41.

Wood, Richard (1977) "Potential issues for language planning in Scotland", Language Planning Newsletter 3:1, Honolulu: East-West Culture Learning Institute, 1-6.

Wood, Richard (1977) "Linguistic organisations in Scotland", Language Problems and Language Planning 1, 41-53.

Wood, Richard (1979) "Scotland: the unfinished quest for a linguistic identity", Word, 186-202.

Young, Douglas (1946) "Plastic Scots" and the Scottish Literary Tradition, address to the Dunedin Society.

Young, Douglas (1947, 1981) "Thochts anent Lallans prose", The Scotia Review 14 PAGE NUMBERS. Reprinted in J. Derrick McClure et al. "Our ain leid? The predicament of a Scots writer", English World-Wide 1:2, 10-12.

Young, Douglas (1949) The Use of Scots for Prose. John Galt Lecture for 1949, Greenock.

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25. Modern Scots: Education

For information on pedagogical resources, contact the Scots Language Resource Centre, A. K. Bell Library, York Place, Perth PH2 8EP http://www.pkc.gov.uk/slrc/index.htm. Also Scottish Language Dictionaries (formerly the Scottish National Dictionary Association) http://www.sldl.org.uk/; Mrs Liz Niven/Watergaw Press, Penninghame Schoolhouse, Newton Stewart, Wigtownshire DG8 6HD http://www.lizniven.com; Dr Sheila Douglas/Merlin Press, "Merlinwood", 12 Mansefield Road, Scone, Perthshire PH2 6SA http://www.sol.co.uk/m/merlinpress.

Aitken, A. J. (1976) "The Scots language and the teacher of English" in Scottish Central Committee on English, Scottish Education Department, Scottish Literature in the Secondary School. A Report of a Sub-committee on the Study of Scottish Literature in Schools, Edinburgh: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 48-55.

Anonymous (1978) "A Scottish viewpoint II: a new sang for an auld leid. An interview with Mr Robert Henryson, Principal Teacher of English, Spens Academy, Fife, conducted by an Uphauder (Official) of the Society of Lowland Scottish Studies", Akros 13:37, 40-51.

Armstrong, Kate (1999) "Clever us, two languages", Lallans 55, 27-35.

Bailey, Richard (1987) "Teaching the vernacular: Scotland, schools, and linguistic diversity" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 131-142.

Borrowman, Lorna (1977) "The Scots tongue in education", Akros 11:33, 107-118.

Borrowman, Lorna (1979) "Scots in education", Chapman 23/24, 51-54.

Clay, Marie (1976) "The effect of two educated dialects on sentence repetition scores of five year old Scottish children", Language and Speech 19, 244-250. For "dialect" read "accent". Inconclusive - lower-class Glasgow children and higher-class Edinburgh children were not handicapped by the difference between a New Zealand and a Glaswegian tester, but there were unexplained differences between the Glasgow schools.

Ferri, Tino (1996) "Parliamo Glasgow?", Education in the North new series 4, 13-17. Reply to Liz Niven "The tartan chador", Education in the North new series 3 (1995), 11-17. See also reply to Ferri by Derrick McClure "Scots: refuge of a scoundrel or language of a nation?", Education in the North new series 5 (1997), 5-9.

Fitt, Matthew (1998) "Scots language in the classroom: viewpoint III" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 93-98.

Fladmark, Magnus (1995) "Towards a trilingual Scotland" in J. M. Fladmark ed. Sharing the Earth: Local Identity in Global Culture. Papers Presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1995 London: Donhead, 311-318.

Gibson, Gordon (1998) "Scots language in teacher training: viewpoint I" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 99-104.

Gifford, Anne (1998) "Scots language in teacher training: viewpoint II" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 105-114.

Graham, John ([1993?]) "Dialect renaissance in Shetland", Scotland's Languages 2, 32.

Hodgart, John and Iseabail Macleod ([1996]) "Using The Scots School Dictionary", Laverock, 29-32.

Hodgart, John (1998) "Scots language in the classroom: Viewpoint II" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 77-92.

Keay, Alan (1995) "Teachin Scots at Portibellie High Schule", Variorum. The Newsletter of the Scots Language Resource Centre 4.

Landon, John ([1993]) "Bilingualism: two languages or forked tongue? The 5-14 position discussed", Scotland's Languages, launch issue, 4-5.

Lorvik, Marjorie (1995) The Scottis [sic] Lass Betrayed? Scots in English Classrooms Consultative Council on the Curriculum, Reflections on Curricular Issues 2.

Low, John (1978) "Place for Lowland Scots in SCE?", The Scottish Educational Journal 61:15, 14.

Low, John (1980) "A Scots language policy for education" in J. Derrick McClure et al., The Scots Language: Planning for Modern Usage, Edinburgh: Ramsay Head, 67-95.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1976) "Tongue-tied in the Scottish classroom", Education in the North 13, 13-16.

McClure, J. Derrick ed. ([1974]) The Scots Language in Education, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 3.

McClure, J. Derrick ([1993]) "What about the mither tongue?", Scotland's Languages, launch issue, 14-15.

McClure, J. Derrick (1997) "Scots: refuge of a scoundrel or language of a nation?", Education in the North new series 5, 5-9. Reply to Tino Ferri "Parliamo Glasgow?", Education in the North new series 4 (1996), 13-17, itself a reply to Liz Niven "The tartan chador", Education in the North new series 3 (1995), 11-17.

MacGillivray, Alan (1979) "Scots in the Colleges of Education", Chapman 23/24, 55-57.

Macleod, Iseabail and Pauline Cairns eds. (1996) The Scots School Dictionary. Scots-English, English-Scots, Edinburgh: Chambers.

McNaughton, Adam (1981) "Glasgow dialect: a view from the classroom" 39-40 in J. Derrick McClure ed., "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1, 35-40.

Melchers, Gunnel (1999) "Writing in Shetland dialect" in Irma Taavitsainen et al. eds Writing in Nonstandard English Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 321-45.

Millar, Sharon (1984) "The teaching of the spoken English language in Belfast schools", Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum Journal 10, 55-76.

Millar, Sharon (1987) "Accents in the Classroom: Sociolinguistic Perspectives on the Teaching of Elocution in Belfast Secondary-level Schools", unpublished Queens University of Belfast PhD thesis.

Miller, Jim ([1993]) "Grammatical patterns in Scots: a problem for English teaching", Scotland's Languages launch issue, 46-47.

Milton, Colin (1992) "Language, class and education in twentieth-century Scottish writing", English World-Wide 13:2, 219-251.

Niven, Liz (1995,1998) "Scots: an educational perspective" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 57-70. Originally published as "The tartan chador", Education in the North new series 3, 11-17. See also reply by Tino Ferri "Parliamo Glasgow?", Education in the North new series 4 (1996), 13-17 and reply to Ferri by Derrick McClure "Scots: refuge of a scoundrel or language of a nation?", Education in the North new series 5 (1997), 5-9.

Niven, Liz (1999) "Scots language resources for schools: cannae find guid Scots materials?", ScotLit (Newsletter of the Association for Scottish Literary Studies) 20 (Spring, 1999), 7.

Niven, Liz (2001) "Educational provision for Scots language: Holyrood Cross-Party Group: 31/1/01", Lallans 58, 89-94.

Niven, Liz (2002) The Scots Language in Education in Scotland Ljouwert/Leeuwarden: Mercator-Education, www.mercator-education.org.

* Niven, Liz and Robin Jackson eds. (1998) The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw.

Philp, Andrew (1978) "A question of standards", Teaching English 11:2, 12-19.

Research Committee of Glasgow Local Association, Educational Institute of Scotland (1935) "Glasgow speech: common errors in language usage", The Scottish Educational Journal Supplement (8 March 1935) i-viii.

Review of Scottish Culture Group (1998) "Scottish culture and the curriculum. A report to the Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum from the Review of Scottish Culture Group". Leaked report suppressed by SCCC.

Roberts, Lesley ([1993]) "Ambiguity in the classroom", Scotland's Languages, launch issue, 7-8.

* Robertson, Robbie (1993) "The Scottish Language Project", Chapman 72, 1-8. Also published as a pamphlet by the Scots Language Resource Centre.

* Robertson, Robbie (1993) "Struggling against history: the Scottish Language Project", Education in the North new series 1, 85-93.

Robertson, Robbie (1996/97) "The Scottish Language Project: The Kist/A'Chiste", Review of Scottish Culture 10, 140-142.

Robertson, Robbie (1998) "Action in a language war: how The Kist/A'Chiste was won" in J. M. Fladmark ed. In Search of Heritage: As Pilgrim or Tourist? Papers Presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1998 Shaftesbury, Dorset: Donhead. 

Scotland in the Schools. A Report on the Scottish Content of our Education (1953), Edinburgh: The Saltire Society. See especially pages 17-21.

Scots Fit? Whit? What? Scots in the Primary School (1986), BBC and Scottish National Dictionary Association. Report of a conference.

Steele, Laura (1998) "Scots and Scottish English: Sociolinguistics and Education in Glasgow and Edinburgh" unpublished University of Edinburgh Ph.D thesis.

Sutherland, George (1998) "Scottish Examination Board" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 135-140.

Tyson, Robert (1998) "Scots language in the classroom: Viewpoint I" in Liz Niven and Robin Jackson eds. The Scots Language: Its Place in Education, Newton Stewart: Watergaw, 71-76.

* Williamson, Keith (1982,1983) "Lowland Scots in education: An historical survey", Scottish Language 1, 54-77; 2, 52-87.

Withrington, Donald (1974) "Scots in education: a historical retrospect" in J. Derrick McClure ed. The Scots Language in Education, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 3, 9-16.

contents

 

26. Modern Scots: Mass Media

Abercrombie, David (1992) "Sociolinguistics and British dialects" in Claudia Blank et al. eds Language and Civilisation. A Concerted Profusion of Essays and Studies in Honour of Otto Hietsch Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 6-10. On whether the BBC had an accent policy. Abercrombie was active in the 1950's in trying to persuade the BBC to allow accents other than RP to be broadcast.

Angus, David (1988) "Whither Scotspeak?", The Scots Magazine 129:4, 366-368.

* Donaldson, William (1986) Popular Literature in Victorian Scotland. Language, Fiction and the Press, Aberdeen University Press.

Donaldson, William (1998) "Language and identity: modern sources of written Scots" in J. M. Fladmark ed. In Search of Heritage: As Pilgrim or Tourist? Papers Presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1998 Shaftesbury, Dorset: Donhead, 193-204. 

Douglas, Fiona (2000) "The Role of Lexis in Scottish Newspapers" unpublished University of Glasgow PhD thesis.

Easton, Norman (1982) "The people's tongue. Socialist thochts on Scotlan's languages", Radical Scotland 1 (Summer 1982), 16-20. See "Thae intelligible anes strike back", page 19.

Hendry, Joy (1993) "No bad language" Fortnight 318, special supplement Talking Scots, April 1993, 20-23.

Kilborn, Richard and Peter Meech (1989) "The Scottish media: an endangered species?" in Hans-Jürgen Diller et al. eds. Scotland: Literature, Culture, Politics, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 87-116.

Ruf, Andrea (1996) "Yi canny talk right." Eine soziolinguistische Untersuchung zur Verwendung des Glaswegian am BBC Radio Scotland und Radio Clyde Bern: Peter Lang. On the proportions of Scottish, including Glaswegian, voices on radio.

Smith, Roz (1995/96) "The local press: what's in it for you?", Scottish Language 14/15, 148-157.

Smith, Roz (1999) "Images of language in advertising in Scotland", Scottish Language 18, 52-68.

 

contents

 

27. Modern Scots: Language Maintenance

Agutter, Alexandra and L. N. Cowan (1981) "Changes in the vocabulary of Lowland Scots dialects", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 14, 49-62.

Downie, Anne (1983) "The survival of the fishing dialects on the Moray Firth", Scottish Language 2, 42-48.

* Hendry, Ian (1997) "Doric - an Investigation into its Use amongst Primary School Children in the North East of Scotland", unpublished University of Aberdeen M.Litt. thesis.

Hettinga, J. (1981) "Standard and dialect in Anstruther and Cellardyke", Scottish Literary Journal, Supplement 14, 37-48.

Lawrie, Susan (1991) "A linguistic survey of the use of Scottish dialect items in North-East Fife", Scottish Language 10, 18-29.

Macafee, Caroline (1993) "Solid dauds of oatcake", Fortnight 318, special supplement Talking Scots, April 1993, 10-12.

Macafee, Caroline (1994) "Dialect erosion with special reference to urban Scots" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 69-80.

* Macafee, Caroline (1994) Traditional Dialect in the Modern World: A Glasgow Case Study, Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

* Macafee, Caroline (1997) "Ongoing change in Modern Scots: the social dimension" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 514-550.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1988) "Linguistic stability and variation" in K. Ferrara et al. eds. Linguistic Change and Contact, Austin: University of Texas, 225-231.

Macleod, Stewart (1989) "Language Death in Scotland: A Linguistic Analysis of the Process of Language Death and Linguistic Interference in Scottish Gaelic and Scots Language" unpublished University of Aberdeen PhD thesis. Slight.

Middleton, Sheena (2000) "A Study into the Knowledge and Use of Scots amongst Primary Pupils on Upper Deeside" unpublished MLitt thesis, Department of English, University of Aberdeen.

Murison, David (1971) "The future of Scots" in Duncan Glen ed. Whither Scotland?, London: Gollancz, 159-177. Murison revisits this topic in the next item.

Murison, David (1979) "The future of Scots", Chapman 23/24, 58-62. A completely separate item from the preceeding.

 * Nässén, Greger (1989) "Norn. The Scandinavian element in Shetland dialect" Report 3 "Norn weather words. 323 meteorological terms in Jakobsen's dictionary and their extent in present-day Shetland dialect", Department of English, Stockholm University.

Pollner, Clausdirk (1985) "Old words in a young town", Scottish Language 4, 5-15.

Riach, W. A. D. (1984) "Galloway schools dialect survey", Scottish Language 3, 49-59.

Skea, Margaret (1982) "Change and Variation in the Lexicon of a Non-Standard Dialect: A Sociolinguistic Study of Dialect Semantics in North Down", unpublished Ulster Polytechnic, Jordanstown PhD thesis.

Wickens, B. (1980,1981) "Caithness speech", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 12, 61-76; Supplement 14, 25-36.

Will, W. (1930) Our Persistent Speech. An Enquiry into the Life of Certain Aberdeenshire Words, Aberdeen: Bon-Accord Press.

 contents

 

28. Modern Scots: Quantitative Sociolinguistics

Douglas-Cowie, Ellen (1978) "Linguistic code-switching in a northern Irish village: social interaction and social ambition" in Peter Trudgill ed. Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English, London: Edward Arnold, 37-51.

Douglas-Cowie, Ellen (1984) "The sociolinguistic situation in northern Ireland" in Peter Trudgill ed. Language in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, 533-545.

Douglas-Cowie, Ellen, Robert Cowie and Joan Rahilly (1995) "The social distribution of intonation patterns in Belfast" in J. W. Lewis ed. Studies in General and English Phonetics in Honours of J. D. O'Connor, London: Routledge, 180-186.

Esling, John (1978) "Voice Quality in Edinburgh - A Sociolinguistic and Phonetic Study", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Esling, John (1978) "The identification of features of voice quality in social groups", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 7, 18-23.

Finlay, Catherine (1987) "Grammatical Variation in the Speech of Belfast Schoolchildren", unpublished University of Ulster D.Phil. thesis.

Finlay, Catherine (1994) "Syntactic variations in Belfast English", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 12, 69-97.

Finlay, Catherine and Michael McTear (1986) "Syntactic variation in the speech of Belfast schoolchildren" in John Harris et al. eds. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland, Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College Dublin, 175-186.

Harris, John (1986) "The lexicon in phonological variation" in John Harris et al. eds. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland, Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studied, Trinity College Dublin, 187-208.

Harris, John (1986) "Phonetic constraints on sociolinguistic variation", Sheffield Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 3, 120-143.

Harris, John (1989) "Towards a lexical analysis of sound change in progress", Journal of Linguistics 25, 35-56.

Johnston, Paul (1979) "A Synchronic and Historical Study of Border Area Bimoric Vowel Systems", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

[Johnston, Paul] (1983) "A sociolinguistic investigation of Edinburgh speech", Social Science Research Council End of Grant Report C/00/23/0023/1. Available in the National Library of Scotland, filed under the name of the grant holder, H. H. Speitel.

* Johnston, Paul (1983) "Irregular style variation patterns in Edinburgh speech", Scottish Language 2, 1-19.

Johnston, Paul (1984) "Variation in the Standard Scottish English of Morningside", English World-Wide 4:2, 133-185. Summary, the "Morningside English", in J. Derrick McClure ed., "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1 (1981), 35-40.

Johnston, Paul (1985) "The rise and fall of the Morningside/Kelvinside accent" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 37-56.

Kingsmore, Rona (1995) Ulster Scots Speech. A Sociolinguistic Study, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Lawson, Eleanor (1998) "The 'Scottish' consonants in the speech of Glaswegian schoolchildren - a sociophonetic investigation". Unpublished Vacation Scholarship Report to the Carnegie Trust.

Lawson, E. and J. Stuart-Smith (1999) "A sociophonetic investigation of the 'Scottish' consonants (/x/ and /hw/) in the speech of Glaswegian children" in Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences San Francisco, 2541-4.

* Macafee, Caroline (1997) "Ongoing change in Modern Scots: the social dimension" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 514-550.

McCafferty, Kevin (1994) "No Prods or Fenians here! The absence of Northern Ireland social organisation in sociolinguistic studies", Nordlyd 21, 1-32.

McCafferty, Kevin (1996) "Voicing differences: variation and change in Derry/Londonderry English in relation to ethnicity, class and sex" in Gerd Bjørhovde and Gøril Rogne eds. Proceedings from the VIth Nordic Conference for English Studies vol.III, School of Languages and Literature, Univeristy of Tromsø, 365-384.

McCafferty, Kevin (1997) "Open Minds, Barricaded Tongues: A Study of Ethnicity and Language Change in Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland", Dr. art. thesis, Univeristy of Tromsø.

McCafferty, Kevin (1998) "Barriers to change: ethnic division and phonological innovation in Northern Hiberno-English", English World-Wide 19:1, 7-32.

McCafferty, Kevin (1998) "Shared accents, divided speech community? Change in Northern Ireland English", Language Variation and Change 10: 97-121.

McCafferty, Kevin (1999) "(London)Derry: between Ulster and local speech - class, ethnicity and language change" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 246-264.

McCafferty, Kevin (2001) Ethnicity and Language Change. English in (London)Derry, Northern Ireland Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1976, 1997) "Social class and language in Glasgow", Language in Society 5, 173-188. Revised as "Social class differences" in Ronald K. S. Macaulay Standards and Variation in Urban Speech, Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: Benjamins, 85-99.

* Macaulay, Ronald K. S. with the assistance of G. D. Trevelyan (1977) Language, Social Class and Education. A Glasgow Study, Edinburgh University Press.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1978) "Variation and consistency in Glaswegian English" in Peter Trudgill ed. Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English, London: Edward Arnold, 132-143.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1988) "A microsociolinguistic study of the dialect of Ayr" in Alan Thomas ed. Methods in Dialectology, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 456-463.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1988) "Linguistic stability and variation" in K. Ferrara et al. eds. Linguistic Change and Contact, Austin: University of Texas, 225-231.

Maclaran, R. (1976) "The variable ( ), a relic form with social correlates", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 1:2, 45-68.

Middleton, Sheena (2000) "A Study into the Knowledge and Use of Scots amongst Primary Pupils on Upper Deeside" unpublished MLitt thesis, Department of English, University of Aberdeen.

Milroy, Lesley (1976) "Phonological correlates to community structure in Belfast", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 1, 1-44.

Milroy, James (1976) "Length and height variations in the vowels of Belfast vernacular", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 1, 69-110.

Milroy, James (1978) "Stability and change in non-standard English in Belfast", Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum Journal 4, 72-82.

Milroy, James (1991) "The interpretation of social constraints on variation in Belfast English" in Jenny Cheshire ed. English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 75-85.

Milroy, Lesley and James Milroy (1977) "Speech and context in an urban setting", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 2:1, PAGE NUMBERS.

* Milroy, Lesley (1980) Language and Social Networks, Oxford: Blackwell.

Milroy, Lesley (1984) "Urban dialects in the British Isles" in Peter Trudgill ed. Language in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, 199-218. Over-states the uniqueness of urban speech change processes.

Pitts, Ann (1982) "Urban Influence in Northern Irish English: A Comparison of Variation in Two Communities", unpublished University of Michigan PhD thesis.

Pitts, Ann (1982) "Urban influence on phonological variation in the Northern Irish speech community", English World-Wide 6, 59-85.

Pitts, Ann (1982) "The elusive vernacular: an account of fieldwork techniques in urban sociolinguistic studies in Northern Ireland", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 6, 104-122.

Pitts, Ann (1986) "Differing prestige values for the (ky) variable in Lurgan" in John Harris et al. eds. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland, Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studied, Trinity College Dublin, 209-221.

Pitts, Ann (1989) "Is urban influence varb-able?" in Ralph Fasold and Deborah Schiffrin eds. Language Change and Variation Amsterdam: Benjamins, 95-106.

* Pollner, Clausdirk (1985) Englisch in Livingston. Ausgewählte sprachliche Erscheinungen in einer schottischen New Town, Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Pollner, Clausdirk (1985) "Linguistic fieldwork in a Scottish New Town" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 57-68.

Reid, Euan (1976) "Social and Stylistic Variation in the Speech of some Edinburgh Schoolchildren", unpublished University of Edinburgh M.Litt. thesis.

Reid, Euan (1978) "Social and stylistic variation in the speech of children" in Peter Trudgill ed. Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English, London: Edward Arnold, 158-172.

Romaine, Suzanne (1975) "Linguistic Variability in the Speech of some Edinburgh Schoolchildren", unpublished University of Edinburgh M.Litt. thesis.

Romaine, Suzanne (1978) "Postvocalic /r/ in Scottish English: sound change in progress?" in Peter Trudgill ed. Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English, London: Edward Arnold, 144-157.

* Romaine, Suzanne (1979) "The language of Edinburgh schoolchildren: the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence", Scottish Literary Journal, Supplement 9, 54-60.

Romaine, Suzanne and Euan Reid (1976) "Glottal sloppiness? A socio-linguistic view of urban speech in Scotland", Teaching English 9, 12-17.

Romaine, Suzanne (1984) The Language of Children and Adolescents: The Acquisition of Communicative Competence, Oxford: Blackwell.

Romaine, Suzanne (1985) "The problem of short /a/ in Scotland", English World-Wide 6, 165-197.

Skea, Margaret (1982) "Change and Variation in the Lexicon of a Non-Standard Dialect: A Sociolinguistic Study of Dialect Semantics in North Down", unpublished Ulster Polytechnic, Jordanstown PhD thesis.

Smith, Jennifer (2000) "Synchrony and Diachrony in the Evolution of English: Evidence from Scotland", unpublished University of York PhD thesis.

Steele, Laura (1998) "Scots and Scottish English: Sociolinguistics and Education in Glasgow and Edinburgh" unpublished University of Edinburgh Ph.D thesis.

Stuart-Smith, Jane (1999) "Glasgow: accent and voice quality" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 203-222.

Stuart-Smith, Jane (1999) "Glottals past and present: a study of T-glottalling in Glaswegian" in Clive Upton and Katie Wales eds., Dialectal Variation in English: Proceedings of the Harold Orton Centenary Conference 1998 (Leeds Studies in English 30), 181-204.

Stuart-Smith, Jane and Fiona Tweedie (2000) "Final Report to the Leverhulme Trust: Accent Change in Glaswegian: A Sociophonetic Investigation (F/179/AX)".

Vaiana, Mary (1972) "A Study in the Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland", unpublished University of Indiana PhD thesis. See Appendix 6 "Sociolinguistic notes".

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29. Modern Scots: Discourse Analysis

Crow, Bryan and Brendan Gunn (1986) "Linguistic and pragmatic aspects of Northern Irish speech: perceptions and convergences", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 8, 1-49.

Dossena, Marina (1998) "Diminutives in Scottish Standard English", Scottish Language 17, 22-39.

Dossena, Marina (1998) "Portraiture and self-portraiture in Scottish Standard English", Linguistica e Filologia 6, 27-42.

Douglas, Sheila (1995/96) "The language of Perthshire travellers", Scottish Language 14/15, 81-89.

Leith, Dick (1995) "Tense variation as a performance feature in a Scottish folktale", Language in Society 24, 53-77.

Leith, Dick (1995) "The historic present in Scottish Traveller folktales", Lore and Language 13, 1-31.

Leith, Dick ( ) "On transcribing Scots folktale performance", Scottish Studies DETAILS

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1984) "Chattering, nattering and blethering: informal interviews as speech events" in Werner Enninger and Lilith Haynes eds. Studies in Language Ecology, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 51-64.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1985) "The narrative skills of a Scottish coal miner" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 101-124.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1987, 1997) "The sociolinguistic significance of Scottish dialect humour", International Journal of the Sociology of Language 65, 53-63. Partly reprinted as "The sociolinguistic significance of dialect humour" in Ronald K. S. Macaulay Standards and Variation in Urban Speech, Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: Benjamins, 61-69.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1989) "'He was some man him': emphatic pronouns in Scottish English" in Thomas Walsh ed. Synchronic and Diachronic Approaches to Linguistic Variation and Change, Georgetown University Press, 179-187.

* Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1991) Locating Dialect in Discourse, Oxford University Press.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1995, 1997) "The adverbs of authority", English World-Wide 16, 37-60. Reprinted in Ronald K. S. Macaulay Standards and Variation in Urban Speech Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: Benjamins, 119-138.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1995/96, 1997) "Remarkably common eloquence: the aesthetics of urban dialect", Scottish Language 14/15, 66-80. Revised in Ronald K. S. Macaulay Standards and Variation in Urban Speech Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: Benjamins, 139-162.

Wilson, John (1993) "Discourse marking and accounts of violence in Northern Ireland", Text 13, 455-475.

 contents

 

30. Modern Scots: Style - General

Adams, J. R. R. (1989) "A preliminary checklist of works containing Ulster dialect 1700-1900", Linen Hall Review 6:3, 10-12.

* Corbett, John (1997) Language and Scottish Literature, Edinburgh University Press.

Corbett, John (2000) "Literary language and Scottish identity", paper given to the ASLS Annual conference 2000, http://www2.arts.gla.ac.uk/ScotLit/ASLS/NoFrames/JCorbett2.html

Garioch, Robert (1968) "The use of Scots", Scottish International 1, 33-35.

* Görlach, Manfred (1997) "Text types and the history of Scots", Journal of English Linguistics 25, 209-230. Revised in Manfred Görlach Even More Englishes. Studies 1996-1997 Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 55-77.

Graham, Laurence (1996) "Shetland literature and the idea of community" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 52-65.

Macafee, Caroline (1982) "Glasgow dialect in literature", Scottish Language 1, 45-53. Summary in J. Derrick McClure ed., "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1 (1981), 35-40.

Macafee, Caroline (1983) Varieties of English Around the World: Glasgow, Amsterdam: Benjamins. Accompanying tape no longer available.

Macafee, Caroline (1986) "Dialect vocabulary as a source of stylistic effects in Scottish literature", Language and Style 19:4, 325-327.

McClure, J. Derrick ([1988]) "The importance of local dialect in a regional literary tradition: Ayrshire and Aberdeenshire compared", Literature of Region and Nation 1:2, 1-16.

Morgan, Edwin (1983) "Glasgow speech in recent Scottish literature" in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press, 195-208.

Murakami, Ryuta (1985) "Lexical and stylistic variation in written modern Scots", Studies in English Language and Literature, Seinan Gakuin University 26, 19-36.

Murison, David (1981) "Northeast Scots as a literary language" in William Donaldson and Douglas Youngs eds. Grampian Hairst. An Anthology of Northeast Prose, Aberdeen University Press, 187-195.

Nicolaisen, Wilhelm (1983) "An onomastic vernacular in Scottish literature" in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press, 209-218.

Rendboe, Laurits (1986) The Shetland Literary Tradition. An Introduction, Odense Universitet, Institut for Middelalderlaboratoriet. Has been criticised for reading a "psychodrama of Shetland history and culture" into Shetland literature at the expense of more universal themes: see Brian Smith "The development of the spoken and written Shetland dialect: a historian's view" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 1996, 30-43.

Robinson, Mairi (1973) "Modern literary Scots: Fergusson and after" in A. J. Aitken ed. Lowland Scots, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional papers 2, 38-55.

Smith, Brian (1996) "The development of the spoken and written Shetland dialect: a historian's view" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 30-43.

Tulloch, Graham (1997) "The Scots language in Australia" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 623-636.

Tulloch, Graham (1997) "Scots as a literary language in Australia" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World: Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Volume 2, Carribean, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 319-334.

Withers, Charles (1984) "'The image of the land': Scotland's geography through her languages and literature", Scottish Geographical Magazine, 100:2, 81-95.

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31. Modern Scots: Style - Prose, including drama

See also translation.

Bridie, James ([1944]) "Notes for a Scottish theatre", Scottish Art and Letters 1, 29-30

Brown, Ian (1995) "Problems of defining 'standard' Scots: some linguistic and theatrical aspects", Zeitschrift fü r Anglistik und Amerikanistik 43:4, 291-302.

* Brown, Ian and Katja Lenz (1997) "'Oh dearie me!': Dramatic rhetoric and linguistic subversion in the Scottish situation comedy The High Life" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World, Vol.1, General Studies, British Isles, North America. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 109-123.

Campbell, Ian (1983, 1988) "James Hogg and the Bible", Scottish Literary Journal 10:1, 14-29. Reprinted in David Wright ed. The Bible in Scottish Life and Literature, Edinburgh: St Andrew Press, 94-109.

Corrigan, Karen (1995/96) "'Plain life' depicted in 'fiery shorthand': sociolinguistic aspects of the languages and dialects of Scotland and Ulster as portrayed in Scott's Waverley and Banim's The Boyne Water", Scottish Language 14/15, 218-233.

Cram, David (1981) "Code-switching, pidgin Gaelic, and Whisky Galore", Scottish Gaelic Studies, 241-262.

Donaldson, William (1986) Popular Literature in Victorian Scotland. Language, Fiction and the Press, Aberdeen University Press.

Donaldson, William (1989) The Language of the People: Scots Prose from the Victorian Revival, Aberdeen University Press.

Dunlop, Bill (2000) "Klytemnestra's Bairns: adapting Aeschylus into Scots", International Journal of Scottish Theatre 1:1. Online journal only: http://arts.qmuc.ac.uk/ijost/Volume1_no1/B_Dunlop.htm.

Henderson, Hamish (1993) "The oral tradition" in Paul H. Scott ed. Scotland: A Concise Cultural History Edinburgh: Mainstream, 159-171. Some comments on the use of cant in Stanley Robertson's works.

* Hewitt, Lindsay (1992) "A Sociolinguistic Approach to the Study of Literary Dialect in the Work of John Galt and Christian Johnstone", unpublished University of Glasgow PhD thesis.

Jansen, Carola (2000) Disnaeland - Die Welten und Mikrokosmen des Alasdair Gray Scottish Studies International vol.31, Scottish Studies Centre (Germersheim), Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz. Section 5 on language and style.

Jessop, C. R. (1972/73) "A Linguistic Consideration of the Use of Scots in Literature with Particular Reference to Lewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song" unpublished University of Leeds M.A. thesis.

Leith, Dick (1995) "Tense variation as a performance feature in a Scottish folktale", Language in Society 24, 53-77.

* Lenz, Katja (1999) Die schottische Sprache im modernen Drama Heidelberg: C. Winter.

Lenz, Katja (2000) "The use of obsolete Scots vocabulary in Modern Scottish plays", International Journal of Scottish Theatre 1:1. Online journal only: http://arts.qmuc.ac.uk/ijost/Volume1_no1/K_Lenz.htm.

Letley, Emma (1988) From Galt to Douglas Brown. Nineteenth Century Fiction and Scots Language, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Letley, Emma (1988) "Language and nineteenth-century Scottish fiction" in Douglas Gifford ed. The History of Scottish Literature vol.3, Nineteenth Century, Aberdeen University Press, 321-336.

Letley, Emma (1986) "'Revolution there as visible as anywhere else!'. Some literary uses of Scots in nineteenth-century fiction", Scottish Language 5, 30-38.

McClure, J. Derrick (1971/72) "Dialect in The House with the Green Shutters", Studies in Scottish Literature 9, 2/3, 148-163.

McClure, J. Derrick (1974) "Modern Scots prose writing" in J. Derrick McClure ed. The Scots Language in Education, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 3, 54-67.

* McClure, J. Derrick (1979,1995) "Scots and English in Annals of the Parish and The Provost" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 129-141. Originally published in Christopher Whatley ed., John Galt 1779-1979, Edinburgh: Ramsay Head, 195-210.

* McClure, J. Derrick (1981,1995) "The language of The Entail" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 142-160. Originally published Scottish Literary Journal 8:1, 30-51.

McClure, J. Derrick (1983, 1995) "Scots in dialogue: some uses and implications" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 86-106. Originally published in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press, 129-148.

McClure, J. Derrick (1983,1995) "Linguistic characterisation in Rob Roy" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 107-117. Originally published in Ian Alexander and David Hewitt eds. Scott and his Influence PUBLICATION DETAILS, 129-139.

McClure, J. Derrick (1983) "Fionn Mac Colla: Unity through Trilingualism" in David Hewitt and Michael Spiller eds. Literature of the North, Aberdeen University Press, 162-175.

McClure, J. Derrick (1988,1995) "Language varieties in The Three Perils of Man" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 118-128. Originally published in Gillian Hughes ed. Papers given at the Second James Hogg Society Conference, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, 56-67.

McClure, J. Derrick (1993) "Varieties of Scots in recent and contemporary narrative prose", English World-Wide 14:1, 1-22.

Murison, David (1969) "The two languages in Scott" in A. N. Jeffares ed. Scott's Mind and Art, Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 206-229.

Ortega, Ramon (1981) "Language and point of view in Lewis Grassic Gibbon's A Scots Quair", Studies in Scottish Literature 16, 148-159.

Toda Iglesia, Fernando (1983) "A Scots-speaking heroine: Jeanie Deans meets the Queen in Walter Scott's The Heart of Mid-Lothian" in EDITOR Héroe y Antihéroe en la Literatura Inglesia (Actas del V Congreso de la AEDEAN), Madrid: Alhambra, 348-360.

Toda, Fernando (1985) "Archaisms and Scotticisms: language and historical point of view in Rob Roy", Anglo-American Studies 51, 23-33.

Trengove, Graham (1975) "Who is you? Grammar and Grassic Gibbon", Scottish Literary Journal 2:2, 47-62.

* Tulloch, Graham (1980) The Language of Walter Scott. A Study of his Scottish and Period Language, London: Deutsch.

Tulloch, Graham (1983) "The use of Scots in Scott and other nineteenth century novelists" in J. H. Alexander and David Hewitt eds. Scott and his Influence, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 6, 341-350.

Tulloch, Graham (1983) "Scott and the creation of dialogue in Scots" in Alan Bold ed. Sir Walter Scott: The Long-Forgotten Melody, London: Vision Press, 143-166.

* Tulloch, Graham (1985) "The search for a Scots narrative voice" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 159-179.

Wagner, Geoffrey (1952) "Lewis Grassic Gibbon and the use of Lallans for prose", Aberdeen University Review 34, 326-337.

Watson, Harry (1982) "Halldór Kiljan Laxness and the modern Scottish novel: some sociolinguistic parallels", Scandinavica. An International Journal of Scandinavian Studies 21:2, 179-190.

Watson, Roderick (DATE) "The rage of Caliban: the 'unacceptable' face and the 'unspeakable' voice in contemporary Scottish writing" in Horst Drescher et al eds. From Scotland to Slovenia Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 53-69.

Welsh, Alexander (1973) "Contrast of styles in the Waverley Novels", Novel 6, 218-228.

Young, Douglas (1949) The Use of Scots for Prose. John Galt Lecture for 1949, Greenock.

contents

 

32. Modern Scots: Style - Poetry

Annand, J. K. (1977) "The vocabulary of Hugh MacDiarmid's Scots poems", Akros 12: 34/35, 15-19.

Anonymous (1993) "Robert Huddleston and the Ulster-Scots tongue", Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 1, 10-11.

Ashmead, John and John Davidson (1993) "Words, music and emotion in the love songs of Robert Burns" in John Dwyer and Richard Sher eds. Sociability and Society in Eighteenth-Century Scotland Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 225-242.

Bentman, Raymond (1965) "Robert Burns's use of Scottish diction" in Frederick Hilles and Harold Bloom eds. From Sensibility to Romanticism: Essays presented to Frederick A Pottle, Oxford University Press, 239-258.

Boutelle, Ann (1971) "Language and vision in the early poetry of Hugh MacDiarmid", Contemporary Literature 12, 495-509.

Bozek, Phillip (1976) "Hugh MacDiarmid's early lyrics: a syntactic examination", Language and Style 9, 29-41.

Buthlay, Kenneth (1975) "The appreciation of the golden lyric: Early Scots poems of Hugh MacDiarmid", Scottish Literary Journal 2:1, 41-66.

Buthlay, Kenneth (1977) "Habbie Simson" in Aitken et al. eds. Bards and Makars: Scottish Language and Literature, Medieval and Renaissance, Glasgow University Press, 214-220.

Buthlay, Kenneth (1977) "Shibboleths of the Scots in the poetry of Hugh MacDiarmid", Akros 34/35, 23-47.

Craigie, Sir William (1896) A Primer of Burns London: Methuen.

Crawford, Thomas (1960) Burns: A Study of the Poems and Songs Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. Includes discussion of code-switches. Appendix I, "Phonetic values in Burns's Scots and Scots-English poems and songs", 351-362 for IPA transcriptions of selected items.

Crawford, Thomas (1997) "Burns, genius and major poetry" in Kenneth Simpson ed. Love and Liberty. Robert Burns: A Bicentenary Celebration, East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 341-353.

Crowe, Anna (2000) "Voices off the map: place-names in a poem by Edwin Morgan", Scottish Place-Name News 8 (Spring, 2000), 7-9.

Dixon, Keith (1986) "La langue vernaculaire comme enjeu idéologique dans la littérature écossaise de l'entre-deux-guerres", Ecosse 5/6, 179-196. On MacDiarmid and Muir.

Emslie, McD. (1960) "Burns and the alien diction" review article of Crawford Burns: A Study of the Poems and Songs (1960), Essays in Criticism 10, 451-461.

Herbert, W. N. (1990) "Morgan's words" in Robert Crawford and Hamish Whyte eds. About Edwin Morgan Edinburgh University Press, 65-74.

Hewitt, David (1983) review of David Daiches Literature and Gentility in Scotland, Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 19, 36-44.

Henderson, Hamish (1954) "The language of Scots folksong", Lines Review 6, 9-13.

Henderson, Hamish (1980) "The ballad, the folk and the oral tradition" in Edward Cowan ed. The People's Past, Edinburgh: Polygon, 69-107.

Henderson, Hamish (1983, 1992) "At the foot o' yon excellin' brae: The language of Scots folksong" in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press, 100-128. Reprinted in Hamish Henderson Alias MacAlias. Writings and Songs, Folk and Literature, Edinburgh: Polygon, 51-77.

Herdman, John (1972) "The progress of Scots", Akros 7:20, 31-42.

Jack, R. D. S. (1994) "Burns as Sassenach poet" in Kenneth Simpson ed. Burns Now Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 150-166.

Jack, R. D. S. (1997) "'Castelia's stank': Burns and rhetoric" in Kenneth Simpson ed. Love and Liberty. Robert Burns: A Bicentenary Celebration, East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 111-118.

Jack, R. D. S. (1998) "Which vernacular revival? Burns and the Makars", Studies in Scottish Literature 30, 9-17.

Kinghorn, Alexander (1955) "The place of Burns's 'Scottish dialect'", Burns Chronicle third series 4, 40-43. Comparison with Fergusson. Burns as a synthesiser of Scots.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1988, 1997) "Urbanity in an urban dialect: the poetry of Tom Leonard", Studies in Scottish Literature 23, 150-163. Expanded as "Urbanity in an urban dialect" in Ronald K. S. Macaulay Standards and Variation in Urban Speech, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 71-83.

MacBain, James (1999) The Soun o Burns Glasgow: Scotsoun Publications. Also tape. A reading guide.

* McClure, J. Derrick (1979, 1995) "Scots and its use in recent poetry" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 171-189. Originally published as "Scots: its range of uses" in A. J. Aitken and Tom McArthur eds. Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 26-48.

McClure, J. Derrick (1979) "The versification of Tom Scott's The Tree", Scottish Literary Journal supplement 10, 17-32.

* McClure, J. Derrick (1981, 1995) "The synthesisers of Scots" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 190-199. Originally published in Einar Haugen et al. eds. Minority Language Today, Edinburgh University Press, 91-99.

McClure, J. Derrick (1987, 1995) "Language and genre in Allan Ramsay's 1721 poems" in J. Derrick McClure Scots and its Literature, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 161-170. Originally published in Jennifer Carter and Joan Pittock eds. Aberdeen and the Enlightenment, Aberdeen University Press, 261-269.

McClure, J. Derrick (1987) "'Lallans' and 'Doric' in North-Eastern Scottish poetry", English World-Wide, 215-234.

McClure, J. Derrick (1987) "Language and genre in Allan Ramsay's 1721 poems" in Jennifer Carter and Joan Pittock eds. Aberdeen and the Enlightenment, Aberdeen University Press, 261-269.

McClure, J. Derrick (1995) "The poetic language of Alexander Scott" in David Hewitt ed. Northern Visions: The Literary Identity of Northern Scotland in the Twentieth Century, East Linton: Tuckwell, 110-129.

* McClure, J. Derrick (1998) "Millenial Scots: the language of poetry in the 1990s" in G. Norquay and G. Smith eds. Space and Place: The Geographies of Literature Liverpool: John Moore University Press, 259-282.

* McClure, J. Derrick (2000) Language, Poetry and Nationhood. Scots as a Poetic Language East Linton: Tuckwell.

Mackie, Alistair (1952) "Fergusson's language: Braid Scots then and now" in Sidney Goodsir Smith ed. Robert Fergusson 1751-1774. Essays by Various Hands to Commemorate the Bicentenary of his Birth, Edinburgh: Nelson, 123-147. Mainly a description of Scots.

McNaught, D. (1901, 1955) "The raucle tongue of Burns", Burns Chronicle 10, 26-37. Reprinted Burns Chronicle third series 4, 19-29.

* Milton, Colin (1983) "From Charles Murray to Hugh MacDiarmid: Vernacular revival and Scottish Renaissance" in David Hewitt and Michael Spiller eds. Literature of the North, Aberdeen University Press, 82-108.

Milton, Colin (1995-96) "Shibboleths o the Scots: Hugh MacDiarmid and Jamieson's Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language", Scottish Language14/15, 1-14.

Milton, Colin (1997) "Ma language is disgraceful: Tom Leonard's Glasgow dialect poems" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World,Vol.1, General Studies, British Isles, North America. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 185-210.

Mulrine, Stephen (1985) "Poetry in Glasgow dialect" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 227-236. Summary in J. Derrick McClure ed., "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1 (1981), 35-40.

Murison, David (1978) "The language of the ballads", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 6, 54-64.

Murison, David (1980) "The language problem in Hugh MacDiarmid's work" in P. H. Scott and A. C. Davis eds. The Age of MacDiarmid, Edinburgh: Mainstream, 93-99.

Murison, David (1989) "The two languages of Burns" in J. Lachlan Mackenzie and Richard Todd eds. In Other Words. Transcultural Studies in Philology, Translation, and Lexicology presented to Hans Heinrich Meier on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday, Dordrecht: Foris, 1-14.

Purves, David (1997) "MacDiarmid's use of Scots: synthetic or natural?", Scottish Language, 16, 82-87.

Sandred, Karl Inge (1981) "A modern poem in Lowland Scots", Moderna språk 75, 27-32. On Stephen Mulrine's "The wee malkies". Malkie will be found in SND Supplement.

Scott, Alexander (1979) "An interview with Hugh MacDiarmid", Studies in Scottish Literature 14, 1-22.

Scott, Mary Jane (1981) "Scottish language in the poetry of James Thomson", Neophilologische Mitteilungen 82:4, 370-385.

Smith, Jeremy (1996) "Ear-rhyme, eye-rhyme and traditional rhyme: English and Scots in Robert Burns's Brigs of Ayr", The Glasgow Review 4, 74-85.

Smith, Jeremy (1996) An Historical Study of English. Function, Form and Change London/New York: Routledge. See chapter 8 on rhymes in Burns.

Smith, Jeremy (2002) "The Scots-English linguistic continuum in eighteenth-century verse" in Katja Lenz and Ruth Möhlig eds. Of Dyversitie & Chaunge of Langage. Essays Presented to Manfred Görlach on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday Heidelberg: C. Winter, 339-52.

Spiller, Michael (1986) "Pronouns in 'Tam o' Shanter'", Scottish Literary Journal 13:1, 21-29.

Stevenson, Randall (1993) "Re-enter Houghmagandie: language as performance in Liz Lochhead's Tartuffe" in Robert Crawford and Anne Varty eds. Liz Lochhead's Voices Edinburgh University Press, 109-123.

Strauss, Dietrich (1998) "Some reflections on Burns’s command of English", Studies in Scottish Literature 30, 77-89.

Tulloch, Graham (1985) "Robert Garioch's different styles of Scots", Scottish Literary Journal 12:1, 53-69.

Watson, Roderick (1991) "This is me tokn … this is ma trooth': alternative voices from dialect to Demotic in Modern Scottish poetry" in Joachim Schwend et al. eds. Literatur im Kontext/Literature in Context. Festschrift für Horst W. Drescher zum 60. Geburtstag, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 183-194.

Watson, Roderick (DATE) "The rage of Caliban: the 'unacceptable' face and the 'unspeakable' voice in contemporary Scottish writing" in Horst Drescher et al eds. From Scotland to Slovenia Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 53-69.

Wilson, Sir James (1925) Scottish Poems of Robert Burns in his Native Dialect London: Oxford University Press. Transcriptions in Wilson's own phonetic system.

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33. Modern Scots: Translation

Bowman, Martin (1988) "Joual/Scots: the language issue in Michel Tremblay's Les Belle-Soeurs" in I. Lockerbie ed. Image and Identity: Theatre and Cinema in Scotland and Quebec University of Stirling: John Grierson Archive and Department of French, 42-55.

Bowman, Martin and Bill Findlay (1994) "Qué bé cois into Scots: translating Michel Tremblay", Scottish Language 13, 61-81.

Catford, J. C. (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation, London: Oxford University Press.

Corbett, John (1997) "Writtin in the langage of Scottis natioun: literary translation into Scots" in Susan Bassnett ed. Translation in Literature, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 95-118.

Corbett, John (1999) Written in the Language of the Scottish Nation. A History of Literary Translation into Scots Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Findlay, Bill (1988) "The Scots language context to translating Les Belle-Soeurs" in Ian Lockerbie ed. Image and Identity: Theatre and Cinema in Scotland and Quebec University of Stirling: John Grierson Archive and Department of French, 24-41.

Findlay, Bill (1992) "Translating Tremblay into Scots", Theatre Research International 17:2, 138-145.

Findlay, Bill (1996) "Talking in tongues: Scottish translations 1970-1995" in R. Stevenson and G. Wallace eds. Scottish Theatre since the Seventies, Edinburgh University Press, 186-197.

Findlay, Bill (1996) "Translating into dialect" in David Johnston ed. Stages in Translation: Essays and Interviews on Translating for the Stage, Bath: Absolute Press, 199-217.

Foucheraux, Jean (1995) "Traduire/Trahir Le vrai monde? de Michel Tremblay: The Real World?/The Real World?", Quebec Studies 20, 86-96.

Gachelin, Jean-Marc (1988) "Traductions Écossaises" in Les Problèmes d'Expression dans la Traduction Biblique, Cahiers du Centre de Linguistique Religieuse 1, Université Catholique de l'Ouest, Institut de Perfectionnement en Langues Vivantes, PAGE NUMBERS.

Görlach, Manfred (1990) "'Haw, the wickit things weans dae!'. Max and Moritz in Scots", Scottish Language 9, 34-51.

Jumpertz-Schwab, Cornelia (1998) The Development of the Scots Lexicon and Syntax in the 16th Century under the Influence of Translations from Latin Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Kernohan, Robert (1991) "Can Scots make a comeback?", Contemporary Review 258:1501 (February 1991), 78-83. Thoughts on Lorimer's New Testament

McClure, J. Derrick (1984) "Villon in Scots: the translations of Tom Scott", Publications du Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg, English Studies 2, 109-121.

McClure, J. Derrick (1987) "Three translations by Douglas Young" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 195-210.

McClure, J. Derrick (1988) "Douglas Young and Sorley MacLean" in Derick Thomson ed. Gaelic and Scots in Harmony: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Languages of Scotland (University of Glasgow, 1988), Department of Celtic, University of Glasgow, 136-148.

McClure, J. Derrick (1991) "Translation and transcreation in the Castalian period", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 185-198.

McClure, J. Derrick (1994) "Literary translation between Scots and Gaelic" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 106-122.

McClure, J. Derrick "Alastair Mackie's translations from Leopardi" in Steven McKenna ed. Selected Essays on Scottish Language and Literature. A Festschrift in Honor of Allan H. MacLaine, Queenston, Ontario: Edwin Mellen Press, 241-258.

McClure, J. Derrick (1997) "Alexander Gray's translations from German folk-song" in Igor Navratil and R. B. Pynsent eds. Appropriations and Impositions: National, Regional and Sexual Identity in Literature. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Literature of Region and Nation, Bratislava: Narodné literarne centrum, 83-93.

Moessner, Lilo (1988) "A critical assessment of Tom Scott's poem The Seavaiger as an exercise in translation", Scottish Language 7, 9-21.

Ogston, David (1988) "William Lorimer's New Testament in Scots: An appreciation" in David Wright ed. The Bible in Scottish Life and Literature, Edinburgh: The Saint Andrew Press, 53-61.

Tulloch, Graham (1986) Introduction to P. Hatley Waddell (1871) Psalms in Scots. Reprint of P. Hately Waddell's The Psalms: Frae Hebrew intil Scottis, first published 1871, Aberdeen University Press, vii-xviii.

Tulloch, Graham (1988) "The language of two Scots versions of the New Testament" in T. L. Burton and Jill Burton eds. Lexicographical and Linguistic Studies: Essays in Honour of G. W. Turner, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 91-102.

Tulloch, Graham (1989) A History of the Scots Bible with Selected Texts, Aberdeen University Press.

Tulloch, Graham (1993) "Bible (the versions, Scottish)" in Nigel Cameron et al. eds. The Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 76-77.

Woodsworth, Judith (1996) "Language, translation and the promotion of national identity: two test cases", Target 8:2, 211-238. On Bill Findlay and Martin Bowman's translation of Tremblay's Les Belle-Soeurs.

 

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34. Modern Scots: Linguistic Geography

For Older Scots, see oscregional. For dialect glossaries, see lexigloss. For specific dialects, return to contents.

Adams, G. Brendan (1956) "Patterns of word distribution", Ulster Folk Life 2, 6-13.

Adams, G. Brendan (1978, 1986) "Some Ulster words describing persons and animals" in G. Brendan Adams, ed. Michael Barry and Philip Tilling The English Dialects of Ulster. An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech, Cultra: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 37-50. Originally published in Ulster Folklife 24, 69-82.

Adams, G. Brendan (1966, 1967; 1986) "The work and words of haymaking" in G. Brendan Adams, ed. Michael Barry and Philip Tilling The English Dialects of Ulster. An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech, Cultra: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 51-96. Originally published in Ulster Folk Life 12 (1966), 66-91; 13 (1967), 29-53.

Adams, G. Brendan et al. (1985) "The Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech: a reappraisal of the techniques of traditional dialect geography" in John Kirk et al. eds. Studies in Linguistic Geography, London: Croom Helm, 67-80.

Atlas Linguarum Europae vol.1 (1983) eds. Mario Alinei and A Weijnin et al., Assen: Van Gorcum. See commentary to maps 1.6-1.9.

* Barry, Michael (1981) Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University.

Barry, Michael (1981) "The methodology of the Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English speech" in Michael Barry ed. Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University, 18-46.

Braidwood, John (1972) "Terms for 'left-handed' in the Ulster dialects", Ulster Folklife 18, 98-110.

Braidwood, John (1974) "Crowls and runts: Ulster dialect terms for 'the weakling of the litter'", Ulster Folklife 20, 71-84.

Braidwood, John (1975) "The Ulster Dialect Lexicon", Inaugural Lecture, Queen's University of Belfast, 23 April 1969.

Catford, J. C. (1957) "The Linguistic Survey of Scotland", Orbis 6:1, 105-121.

* Catford, J. C. (1957) "Vowel systems of Scots dialects", Transactions of the Philological Society, 107-117.

Gailey, Alan (1962) "Ropes and rope-twisters", Ulster Folklife 8, 72-82.

Gailey, Alan (1972) "The last sheaf in the North of Ireland", Ulster Folklife 18, 1-33.

* Glauser, Beat (1974) The Scottish-English Linguistic Border. Lexical Aspects, Bern: Francke.

Glauser, Beat (1988) Review of The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland. Scots Section vol.III Phonology (1986), Anglia 106: 3/4, 446-452.

Glauser, Beat (1994) "The sound /x/ in Scots" in Horst Drescher and Pierre Morère eds. Scottish Studies: Proceedings of the Scottish Workshop of the ESSE Conference, Bordeaux 1993, GDR Études Écossaises, Université Stendhal, Grenoble and Scottish Studies Centre, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Germersheim, 19-37.

* Gregg, Robert (1963,1985) The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in the Province of Ulster, Canadian Federation for the Humanities. Originally a University of Edinburgh PhD thesis, "The Boundaries of the Scotch-Irish Dialects in Ulster".

* Gregg, Robert (1972) "The Scotch-Irish dialect boundaries in Ulster" in Martyn Wakelin ed. Patterns in the Folk Speech of the British Isles, London: Athlone, 109-139.

Henry, P. L. (1964) "Anglo-Irish word-charts" in [G. Brendan Adams] ed. (1964) Ulster Dialects. An Introductory Symposium, Cultra: Ulster Folk Museum, 147-161. Includes a few Ulster Scots localities in Co. Antrim and Co. Donegal. Maps 'brood of chickens, borrowing days, small potatoes, the discard of seed potatoes, flail-joint, toadstool'.

Hill, Trevor (1960) "The Linguistic Survey of Scotland: the Scots section", University of Edinburgh Gazette 27 (May 1960), 30-34.

Hill, Trevor (1963) "Phonemic and prosodic analysis in linguistic geography", Orbis 12, 449-55.

* Johnston, Paul (1997) "Regional variation" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 443-513. The (page!) references to Robinson (1985) are in fact to Aitken's pronunciation entries in The Concise Scots Dictionary. For some further discussion of the Shetlandic system, see John Tait "Some characteristics of the Shetlandic vowel system", Scottish Language 19 (2000), 83-99.

Johnston, Paul (2000) "Taming Volume III of the Linguistic Atlas of Scotland", Scottish Language 19, 45-65.

Kirk, John (1994) "Word maps of East Central Scots: a computerised package" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 48-68. A re-arrangement of data from The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland.

Kirk, John et al. (1994) "Electronic word maps", Research in Humanities Computing 2, 195-225.

Kohler, Klaus (1967) "Structural dialectology", Zeitschrift fü r Mundartforschung 34:1, 40-44. Slight, but links the methods of the phonological part of the Linguistic Survey of Scotland to the contemporary methodological debate.

* The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland 3 vols (1975,1977,1986) eds. James Y Mather and H. H. Speitel, London: Croom Helm. The first two volumes deal with lexical material and the third with phonetic.

Macafee, Caroline (1991/92) "Acumsinery: Is it too late to collect traditional dialect?", Folk Life 30, 71-77.

* Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1977) review of Mather and Speitel The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland vol.I (1975), Language 53, 224-228.

* Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1979) review of Mather and Speitel The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland vol.II (1977), Language 55, 224-228.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1985) "Linguistic maps: visual aid or abstract art?" in John Kirk et al. eds. Studies in Linguistic Geography, London: Croom Helm, 172-186.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1997) "Ayrshire as a linguistic area" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World,Vol.1, General Studies, British Isles, North America. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 159-171.

* McIntosh, Angus (1952) An Introduction to a Survey of Scottish Dialects, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Thomas Nelson & Sons.

McIntosh, Angus (1954) "The study of Scots dialects in relation to other subjects", Orbis 3, 173-177.

Mather, James Y. (1964) "Dialect research in Orkney and Shetland after Jakobsen", Fróðskaparrit 13, 33-45.

Mather, James Y. (1965) "Aspects of the linguistic geography of Scotland: I", Scottish Studies 9:2, 129-144.

Mather, James Y. (1966) "Aspects of the linguistic geography of Scotland II: East Coast fishing", Scottish Studies 10, 129-153.

Mather, James Y. (1969) "Aspects of the linguistic geography of Scotland III: Fishing communities of the East Coast (part I)", Scottish Studies 13, 1-16. I am not aware of any further parts (but see next item).

Mather, James Y. (1972) "Linguistic geography and the traditional drift-net fishery of the Scottish East Coast" in Martyn Wakelin ed. Patterns in the Folk Speech of the British Isles, London: Athlone, 7-31.

Mather, James Y. (1995) "Dialect" in Donald Omand ed. The Border Book Edinburgh: Birlinn, 193-202. Compares Murray, Grant, and Linguistic Survey of Scotland findings relevant to the Borders. Includes the only report known to me of grammatical material from the Linguistic Survey of Scotland, albeit brief.

Millar, Robert McColl (1999) "Some geographic and cultural patterns in the lexical/semantic structure of Scots", Northern Scotland 18, 55-65. Some of the discussion is inconsistent with the data given.

O'Dowd, Anne (1981) Meitheal. A Study of Co-operative Labour in Rural Ireland, Dublin: Comhairle Bhéaloideas Éireann An Coláiste Ollscoile. Includes some linguistic-geographical maps.

* Speitel, H. H. and James Y Mather (1968) "Schottische Dialektologie" in L. E. Schmitt ed. Germanische Dialektologie: Festschrift für Walter Mitzka, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 520-541. An important revision of the dialect boundaries. Some of the features of the main map are reproduced in John Wells, Accents of English vol.2 The British Isles Cambridge University Press (1982), p. 398. In both cases the Grant and Catford Highland Lines are switched.

Speitel, H. H. (1969) "An areal typology of isoglosses near the Scottish-English Border", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 36, 49-66.

Speitel, H. H. (1978) "The word geography of the Borders", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 6, 17-37.

* Speitel, H. H. (1981) "The geographical position of the Scots dialect in relation to the Highlands of Scotland" in Michael Benskin and M. L. Samuels eds. So Meny People, Longages and Tonges: Philological Essays in Scots and Mediaeval English Presented to Angus McIntosh, Edinburgh: The Middle English Dialect Project, 107-129.

Tait, John (2000) "Some characteristics of the Shetlandic vowel system", Scottish Language 19, 83-99.

Viereck, Wolfgang (1964) "Der English Dialect Survey und der Linguistic Survey of Scotland - Arbeitsmethoden und bisherige Ergebnisse", Zeitschrift für Mundartforschung 31, 333-355.

Viereck, Wolfgang (2000) "Celtic and English - an intricate relationship", in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes II Heidelberg: C. Winter, 375-98. Semantic aspects of linguistic geography.

Withers, Charles (1984) "'The image of the land': Scotland's geography through her languages and literature", Scottish Geographical Magazine, 100:2, 81-95. Useful map combining Scots dialect areas and Gaelic areas with pre-1975 counties.

Woolley, J. S. (1955) "The Linguistic Survey of Scotland and its activities in Cumberland", Journal of the Lakeland Dialect Society 17, 8-12.

Zwickl, Simone (1996) "Eine Wortgeographie Nordirlands", unpublished Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg Magisterarbeit thesis.

Zwickl, Simone (2001) "Dialect knowledge and use across the Northern Irish/Irish Border: linguistic and extralinguistic factors" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Language Links. The Languages of Scotland and Ireland, Belfast: Queen's University, 149-69. Mainly concerned with Hiberno-English, but some Scots lexical items.

 

 contents

 

35. Modern Scots Dialects: Orkney and Shetland

Some works on Norn are also included.

Barnes, Michael (1984) "Orkney and Shetland Norn" in Peter Trudgill ed. Language in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, 352-366.

Barnes, Michael (1984) "Norn", Scripta Islandica 35, 23-42.

Barnes, Michael (1989) "The death of Norn" in Heinrich Beck ed. Germanische Rest- und Trümmersprachen, Berlin: De Gruyter, 21-43.

Barnes, Michael (1991) "Reflections on the structure and the demise of Orkney and Shetland Norn" in P. Sture Ureland and George Broderick eds. Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 429-460.

Barnes, Michael (1996) "Jakob Jakobsen and the Norn language of Shetland" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 1-15.

Campbell, J. L. (1953) "The Norse language in Orkney in 1725", Scottish Historical Review 33, 175.

Catford, J. C. (1957) "Shetland dialect", Shetland Folk Book 3, 71-75.

Edmonston, T. (1866) An Etymological Glossary of the Shetland and Orkney Dialect, Publications of the Philological Society.

Eunson, J. (1976) Words, Phrases and Recollections from Fair Isle, Lerwick: PUBLISHER.

Fenton, Alexander (1968/69) "The tabu language of the fishermen of Orkney and Shetland", Ethnologia Europaea 2/3, 118-122.

Fenton, Alexander (1978) The Northern Isles: Orkney and Shetland, Edinburgh: John Donald. Ch.70 "The sea language of fishermen and the end of Norn".

Flom, George (1928/29) "The transition from Norse to Lowland Scotch in Shetland, 1600-1850. A study in the decay of one language and its influence upon the language that supplanted it", Saga-Book of the Viking Society 10, 145-164.

Graham, John (1979) The Shetland Dictionary, Stornoway: Thule.

Graham, John (1993) "The Shetland dialect" Fortnight 318, special supplement Talking Scots, April 1993, 18-19.

Graham, John ([1993?]) "Dialect renaissance in Shetland", Scotland's Languages 2, 32.

Graham, Laurence (1996) "Shetland literature and the idea of community" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 52-65.

Grønneberg, Roy (1981) Jakobsen and Shetland, Lerwick: Shetland Publishing.

Hæ gstad, Marius (1900) Hildinakvadet med utgreiding um det norske maal paa Shetland i eldre tid Christiania [Oslo]: Jacob Dybwad. An account of the surviving fragments of Shetland Norn.

Hibbert, Samuel (1822) A Description of the Shetland Islands, Edinburgh. See pages 512-513 for a dialect specimen, reprinted in Skeat's Nine Specimens, FULL DETAILS OF SKEAT.

* Jakobsen, Jakob (1897) The Dialect and Place Names of Shetland. Two Popular Lectures, Lerwick: T. & J. Manson. The Place Names of Shetland reprinted 1936 London/Copenhagen: D. Nutt/V. Prior; reprinted 1993 Orkney: The Orcadian.

Jakobsen, Jakob (1897) Det norrøne sprog på Shetland, Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen PhD thesis.

* Jakobsen, Jakob (1921,1928) Etymologisk Ordbog over det Norrøne Sprog på Shetland. Translated as An Etymological Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland, 2 volumes, London: David Nutt, reprinted New York: AMS Press, n.d.

Jamieson, Peter (1960) "Shetland speech", The Saltire Review 6:20, 17-24.

Jamieson, Peter (1974) "Sea-speech and beliefs of Shetland fishermen (Part 1)", The New Shetlander 110, 30-32.

Lamb, Gregor (1988) Orkney Wordbook. A Dictionary of the Dialect of Orkney, Birsay: Byrgisey.

Lundberg, Oskar (1954) "On the Shetland sea language as a source of Old Norse literature" in W. Douglas Simpson ed. The Viking Congress, Lerwick, July 1950, Edinburgh: Aberdeen University Studies 132, 221-229.

MacLean, Calum and Stewart Sanderson (1960) "A collection of riddles from Shetland", Scottish Studies 4:2, 150-186. Collected in 1954 by advertising in the Shetland News.

* Marwick, Hugh (1929, 1992) The Orkney Norn, Dunfermline: W. I. A. Murray. Originally published Oxford University Press.

Mather, James Y. (1964) "Dialect research in Orkney and Shetland after Jakobsen", Fróðskaparrit 13, 33-45.

* Melchers, Gunnel (1981) "The Norn element in Shetland dialect today - a case of 'never-accepted' language death" in Eva Ejerhéd and Inger Henrysson eds. Tvåspråkighet. Föredrag från tredje Nordiska Tvåspråkighetsymposiet, 4-5 juni 1980, Umeå universitet, University of Umeå, 254-261.

Melchers, Gunnel (1983) "Norn. The Scandinavian Element in Shetland Dialect. Report 1: a Presentation of the Project", Department of English, University of Stockholm.

Melchers, Gunnel (1984) "Is the structure of the syllable in Shetland dialect 'Scandinavian'?" in Claes-Christian Elert et al. eds. Nordic Prosody III. Papers from a Symposium, Acta Universitatis Umensis, Umeå Studies in the Humanities 59, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 179-186.

Melchers, Gunnel (1985) "'Knappin', 'Proper English', 'Modified Scottish'. Some language attitudes in the Shetland Isles" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 87-100.

Melchers, Gunnel (1986) "Narrowing and extension of meaning in the Scandinavian-based vocabulary of Shetland dialect", Scottish Language 5, 110-119.

Melchers, Gunnel (1987) "On the Low German and Dutch element in Shetland dialect" in P. Sture Ureland ed. Sprachkontakt in der Hanse. Aspekte des Sprachausgleichs im Ostsee und Nordseeraum. Akten des 7. Internationalen Symposions über Sprachkontakt in Europa, Lübeck 1986, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 295-316.

Melchers, Gunnel (1987) "Is du heard aboot yun afore? On the use of be as a perfective auxiliary in Shetland dialect", Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Stockholm Studies in Modern Philology New Series 8, 56-60.

Melchers, Gunnel (1989) "Twartree ösfil Shetlan flooers" in Bengt Odenstedt and Gunnar Persson eds. Instead of Flowers. Papers in Honour of Mats Rydén on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, August 27, 1989, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 147-153.

Melchers, Gunnel (1991) "Norn-Scots: a complicated language contact situation in Shetland" in P. Sture Ureland and George Broderick eds. Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 461-477.

Melchers, Gunnel (1992) "’Du’s no heard da last o’dis’ – on the use of be as a perfective auxiliary in Shetland dialect" in M. Rissanen et al. eds. History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 602-610.

Melchers, Gunnel (1996) "'We're aa da same here - but different, too': Some notes on regional linguistic variation in Shetland" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 44-51.

Melchers, Gunnel (1999) "Writing in Shetland dialect" in Irma Taavitsainen et al. eds Writing in Nonstandard English Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 321-45.

Murison, David (1954) "Scots speech in Shetland" in W. Douglas Simpson ed. The Viking Congress, Lerwick, July 1950, Edinburgh: Aberdeen University Studies 132, 255-260.

Murison, David (1964) "Shetland speech today", Frøðskaparrit 13, 122-129.

Nässén, Greger (1983) "The Scandinavian Element in the Orkney and Shetland Dialects. Report 2: A Study of 102 words of Old Norse origin in Insular Scots", Department of English, University of Stockholm.

Nässén, Greger (1989) "Norn weather words. 323 meteorological terms in Jakobsen's dictionary and their extent in present-day Shetland dialect" Report 3, "Norn. The Scandinavian element in Shetland dialect", Department of English, Stockholm University.

* Oreström, Bengt ed. (1985) A Corpus of Shetland English, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.

Oreström, Bengt (1987) "Nögra nordiska inslag i språket på Shetlandsöarna", Saga och Sed, 95-110.

Pavlenko, Alexander (1996) "On the use of ‘be’ as a perfective auxiliary in modern Shetland dialect: hybridisation and syntactic change" in P. Sture Ureland and Iain Clarkson eds. Language Contact across the Atlantic, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 75-82.

Pavlenko, Alexander (1997) "The origin of the be-perfect with transitives in the Shetland dialect", Scottish Language 16, 88-96.

Rendboe, Laurits (1984) "How 'worn out' or 'corrupted' was Shetland Norn in its final stage?", NOWELE [North-Western European Language Evolution] 3, 53-88. See also Michael Barnes "Jakob Jakobsen and the Norn language of Shetland" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 1996, 1-15.

Rendboe, Laurits (1986) The Shetland Literary Tradition. An Introduction, Odense Universitet, Institut for Middelalderlaboratoriet. Has been criticised for reading a "psychodrama of Shetland history and culture" into Shetland literature at the expense of more universal themes: see Brian Smith "The development of the spoken and written Shetland dialect: a historian's view" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 1996, 30-43.

Rendboe, Laurits (1987) Det gamle shetlandske sprog, NOWELE [North-Western European Language Evolution] Supplement volume 3, Odense Universitetsforlag. See also Michael Barnes "Jakob Jakobsen and the Norn language of Shetland" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 1996, 1-15.

Roberts, Lesley ([1993]) "Ambiguity in the classroom", Scotland's Languages, launch issue, 7-8.

* Robertson, T. A. and John Graham (1952) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick: Shetland Times Ltd.

Saxby, Jessie M. E. (1907/08) "Notes on the Shetland dialect", Saga-Book 5, 65-69.

Sigmundsson, Svavar (1984) "A critical review of the work of Jakob Jakobsen and Hugh Marwick" in Alexander Fenton and Hermann Palsson eds. The Northern and Western Isles in the Viking World, Edinburgh: John Donald, 280-291.

Smith, Brian (1996) "The development of the spoken and written Shetland dialect: a historian's view" in Doreen Waugh and Brian Smith eds. Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies, 30-43.

Stewart, John (1964) "Norn in Shetland", Frøðskaparrit 13, 158-175.

Tait, John (2000) "Some characteristics of the Shetlandic vowel system", Scottish Language 19, 83-99.

Tait, John (2001) "Whit is Shetlandic?", Lallans 58, 7-16.

 

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36. Modern Scots Dialects: Caithness

Geddes, J. [1978] Caithness Spoken: A Selection of Old Caithness Words and Expressions, Michinhampton: privately published.

Mather, James (1978) "The dialect of Caithness", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 6, 1-16.

Nicolson, D. B. (1907) "Dialect" in J. Horne ed. The County of Caithness, Wick: W. Rae, 60-68.

Ross, J. (1972) "A selection of Caithness dialect words" in Donald Omand ed. The Caithness Book, Inverness: Highland Printers Ltd., 241-260.

Thorsen, Per (1954) "The third Norn dialect - that of Caithness" in W. Douglas Simpson ed. The Viking Congress, Lerwick, July 1950, Edinburgh: Aberdeen University Studies 132, 230-238.

Wickens, B. (1980,1981) "Caithness speech", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 12, 61-76; Supplement 14, 25-36.

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37. Modern Scots Dialects: North-East

Amini, Marjan (1998) "Use of Same Polarity Tags in Aberdeen and the North-East of Scotland", unpublished University of Aberdeen MLitt thesis.

Buchan, Peter and David Toulmin (1989) Buchan Claik. The Saut and the Glaur o't. A Compendium of Words and Phrases from the North-East of Scotland, Edinburgh: Gordon Wright.

Carter, Ian (1979) Farm-life in North-East Scotland, 1840-1914, Edinburgh: John Donald.

* Dieth, Eugen (1932) A Grammar of the Buchan Dialect, Cambridge University Press. Only the first volume, on phonology, was published.

Downie, Anne (1983) "The survival of the fishing dialects on the Moray Firth", Scottish Language 2, 42-48.

Fenton, Alexander (1959) "Proverbs and sayings of the Auchterless and Turriff area of Aberdeenshire", Scottish Studies 3:1, 39-71.

Fenton, Alexander (1986) Wirds an' Wark 'e Seasons Roon', Aberdeen University Press.

Fenton, Alexander (1987) "A North-East farmer's working vocabulary" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 153-165.

Fenton, Alexander (1989) "The working vocabulary of a farm in Northeast Scotland in the mid-twentieth century" in J. Lachlan Mackenzie and Richard Todd eds. In Other Words. Transcultural Studies in Philology, Translation, and Lexicology Presented to Hans Heinrich Meier on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday, Dordrecht: Foris, 315-325.

* Gregor, Walter (1866) The Dialect of Banffshire with a Glossary of Words not in Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, London: The Philological Society.

Henderson, Hamish (1993) "The oral tradition" in Paul H. Scott ed. Scotland: A Concise Cultural History Edinburgh: Mainstream, 159-171. Some comments on the use of cant in Stanley Robertson's works.

Hendry, Ian (1997) "Doric - an Investigation into its Use amongst Primary School Children in the North East of Scotland", unpublished University of Aberdeen M.Litt. thesis.

Jones, Charles (1994) "Alexander Geddes: an eighteenth-century Scottish orthoepist and dialectologist", Folia Linguistica Historica 15, 71-103.

Kynoch, Douglas (1994) Teach Yourself Doric. A Course for Beginners, Aberdeen: Scottish Cultural Press.

Kynoch, Douglas (1996) A Doric Dictionary. Two-way Lexicon of North-East Scots. Doric-English, English-Doric, Edinburgh: Scottish Cultural Press.

Kynoch, Douglas (1997) Doric Proverbs and Sayings, Edinburgh: Scottish Cultural Press.

Kynoch, Douglas (1997) Doric for Swots. A Course for Advanced Students, Edinburgh: Scottish Cultural Press.

Löw, Danielle (1997) "The Doric in Pitmedden: Language Attitudes in a Scottish Village" unpublished dissertation, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg.

Macafee, Caroline and Briege McGarrity (1999) "Scots language attitudes and language maintenance" in Clive Upton and Katie Wales eds., Dialectal Variation in English: Proceedings of the Harold Orton Centenary Conference 1998 (Leeds Studies in English 30), 165-179. Main findings and implications of Briege McGarrity, "A Sociolinguistic Study of Attitudes towards and Proficiency in the Doric Dialect in Aberdeen", unpublished University of Aberdeen MPhil thesis, 1998.

McClure, J. Derrick (1987) "Dialect speech" in Douglas Omand ed. The Grampian Book, Golspie, 306-315.

McClure, J. Derrick (1987) "'Lallans' and 'Doric' in North-Eastern Scottish poetry", English World-Wide 8:2, 215-234.

McClure, J. Derrick ([1988]) "The importance of local dialect in a regional literary tradition: Ayrshire and Aberdeenshire compared", Literature of Region and Nation 1:2, 1-16.

McGarrity, Breige (1998) "A Sociolinguistic Study of Attitudes towards and Proficiency in the Doric Dialect in Aberdeen", unpublished University of Aberdeen MPhil thesis. Main findings summarised in Caroline Macafee and Briege McGarrity (1999) "Scots language attitudes and language maintenance" in Clive Upton and Katie Wales eds., Dialectal Variation in English: Proceedings of the Harold Orton Centenary Conference 1998 (Leeds Studies in English 30), 165-179.

McKinlay, Rev. R. (1914) "The speech of Scotland prior to the eighteenth century, with special reference to northern dialect", Transactions of the Buchan Club, 3-16.

Macleod, Stewart (1989) "Language Death in Scotland: A Linguistic Analysis of the Process of Language Death and Linguistic Interference in Scottish Gaelic and Scots Language" unpublished University of Aberdeen PhD thesis.

McRae, Sandra (2000) "The demonstrative pronouns in the North-East: an introductory discussion", Scottish Language 19, 66-82.

Mather, James Y. (1968) Review of Wölck, Phonematische Analyse der Sprache von Buchan (1965), Journal of Linguistics 4, 121-125

Middleton, Sheena (1999) Doric: The Cock of the North: Points of View on a Linguistic Compass: Interviews with North East Folk, Aberdeen: Elphinstone Institute, University of Aberdeen.

Middleton, Sheena (2000) "A Study into the Knowledge and Use of Scots amongst Primary Pupils on Upper Deeside" unpublished MLitt thesis, Department of English, University of Aberdeen.

Murison, David (1963) "Local dialects" in Andrew O'Dell and J. Mackintosh eds., The North-East of Scotland: A Survey Prepared for the Aberdeen Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1963 Aberdeen: Local Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 196-202. Slight, but map somewhat revises the boundaries of Mid Northern Scots (b).

Murison, David (1976) "The speech of Moray" in Donald Omand ed. The Moray Book, Edinburgh: Paul Harris, 275-282.

Murison, David (1981) "Northeast Scots as a literary language" in William Donaldson and Douglas Young eds. Grampian Hairst. An Anthology of Northeast Prose, Aberdeen University Press, 187-195.

Murison, David (1982) "The Buchan tongue", Transactions of the Buchan Field Club 18:3 (1979, published 1982), 33-34.

Mutschmann, H. (1909) A Phonology of the Northeast Scotch Dialect on a Historical Basis, Bonn: Bonner Studien zur englischen Philologie I. Generally considered inaccurate in its phonetic observations - see review by O. Ritter in Englische Studien 46 (1912/1913), 9-65.

Ritter, O. (1912/1913) "Zur Mundart des nordöstlichen Schottland", Englische Studien 46, 9-65. Critical review of Mutschmann (1909).

Smith, Jennifer (2000) "Synchrony and Diachrony in the Evolution of English: Evidence from Scotland", unpublished University of York PhD thesis.

Smith, Jennifer (2000) '"You Ø na hear o' that kind o' things." Negative do in Buckie Scots', English World-Wide 21:2, 231-59.

* Wattie, M. ed. (1938) The Scottish Works of Alexander Ross, M.A. Schoolmaster at Lochlee, Edinburgh: Scottish Texts Society 3rd series 9. See introduction, "Language", 44-60.

Will, W. (1930) Our Persistent Speech. An Enquiry into the Life of Certain Aberdeenshire Words, Aberdeen: Bon-Accord Press.

Wilson, William Morrice (1993) Speak o' the North-East, NES Publications [privately published].

Wilson, William Morrice (1995) Speak o' the North-East. Index/Glossary, NES Publications [privately published].

Wölck, Wolfgang (1965) Phonematische Analyse der Sprache von Buchan, Heidelberg: Winter.

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38. Modern Scots Dialects: Dundee

McCluskey, Mick (1990) Dundonian for Beginners, Edinburgh: Mainstream. Humorous, but authentic.

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39. Modern Scots Dialects: East Central

Chirrey, Deborah (1999) "Edinburgh: descriptive material" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 223-229.

Jones, Charles (1994) "Alexander Geddes: an eighteenth-century Scottish orthoepist and dialectologist", Folia Linguistica Historica 15, 71-103.

Kerr, R. D. ed. (1979) A Glossary of Mining Terms Used in Fife, Kirkcaldy College of Technology.

Kirk, John (1994) "Word maps of East Central Scots: a computerised package" in Alexander Fenton and Donald MacDonald eds. Studies in Scots and Gaelic, Edinburgh: Canongate Academic, 48-68. A re-arrangement of data from The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland.

Lawrie, Susan (1991) "A linguistic survey of the use of Scottish dialect items in North-East Fife", Scottish Language 10, 18-29.

McPhee, W. H. (1983) "Mining terms used in Fife", Scottish Language 2, 33-41.

Mather, James (1960) "On describing Edinburgh speech", University of Edinburgh Gazette 27, 34-38. Antrin observations on sound changes and intonation.

Mather, James (1980) "The dialect of the Eastern Borders", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 12, 30-42.

Murray, Mary (1982) In my Ain words. An East Neuk Vocabulary, Anstruther: Scottish Fisheries Museum.

Schlötterer, Rainer (1996) "Fishermen's Dialect on the South-East Coast of Scotland. Lexical Aspects", University of Bamberg PhD thesis. Copy in the Fisheries Museum, Anstruther, Fife.

Speitel, H. H. (1969) "Some Studies in the Dialect of Midlothian", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Speitel, H. H. (1969) "An early specimen of Edinburgh speech", Work in Progress, Department of Phonetics and Linguistics, University of Edinburgh 3, 26-36.

Speitel, H. H. (1975) "'Caller ou!'. An Edinburgh fishwives' cry and an old Scottish sound change", Scottish Studies 19, 69-73.

* Wilson, James (1916) Lowland Scotch as Spoken in the Lower Strathearn District of Perthshire, Oxford University Press.

Wilson, James (1926) The Dialects of Central Scotland, London: Oxford University Press.

contents

 

40. Modern Scots Dialects: Glasgow

Cruttenden, Alan (1981) "Falls and rises: meanings and universals", Journal of Linguistics 17:1, 77-92.

Hanley, Cliff (1984) "Snobs and scruff" in Cliff Hanley ed. Glasgow. A Celebration, Edinburgh: Mainstream, 163-171. Anecdotally distinguishes between two registers of Glasgow dialect, both using Scots vocabulary, but the "snobbish" level avoiding "bad grammar".

Kirk, John (1981) "On Scottish non-standard English", Nottingham Linguistic Circular 10:1, 155-178. Slight, but notes the influence of non-standard grammar from England.

Knight, Lorna (1992) "Glasgow slang" in Claudia Blank ed. Language and Civilization. A Concerted Profusion of Essays and Studies in Honours of Otto Hietsch, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, vol.2, 69-75.

Macafee, Caroline (1982) "Glasgow dialect in literature", Scottish Language 1, 45-53. Summary in J. Derrick McClure ed., "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1 (1981), 35-40.

* Macafee, Caroline (1983) Varieties of English Around the World: Glasgow, Amsterdam: Benjamins. Accompanying tape no longer available.

Mackie, Albert (1977) Talking Glasgow, Belfast: Blackstaff.

Mackie, Albert (1984) The Illustrated Glasgow Glossary, Belfast: Blackstaff.

McNaughton, Adam (1981) "Glasgow dialect: a view from the classroom" 39-40 in J. Derrick McClure ed., "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1, 35-40.

Mason, Peter (1987) C'mon Geese yer Patter. The Glasgow and West of Scotland Phrase Book, Port Glasgow: Seanachaidh Presentations.

Miller, James (1985) review of Caroline Macafee Varieties of English Around the World: Glasgow (1983), Scottish Language 4, 32-36.

Milton, Colin (1997) "Ma language is disgraceful: Tom Leonard's Glasgow dialect poems" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World,Vol.1, General Studies, British Isles, North America. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 185-210.

Morgan, Edwin (1983) "Glasgow speech in recent Scottish literature" in J. Derrick McClure ed. Scotland and the Lowland Tongue: Studies in the Language and Literature of Lowland Scotland in honour of David D. Murison, Aberdeen University Press, 195-208.

Mulrine, Stephen (1985) "Poetry in Glasgow dialect" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 227-236. Summary, "Glasgow dialect poetry" in J. Derrick McClure ed., "Urban Scots", Teaching English 15:1 (1981), 35-40.

Munro, Michael (1985 and 1988, 1996) The Complete Patter, Edinburgh: Canongate. Incorporating The Patter. A Guide to Current Glasgow Usage, originally published by Glasgow District Libraries and The Patter. Another Blast, originally published Edinburgh: Canongate.

Research Committee of Glasgow Local Association, Educational Institute of Scotland (1935) "Glasgow speech: common errors in language usage", The Scottish Educational Journal Supplement (8 March 1935) i-viii.

Stuart-Smith, Jane (1999) "Glasgow: accent and voice quality" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 203-222.

Stuart-Smith, Jane (1999) "Glottals past and present: a study of T-glottalling in Glaswegian" in Clive Upton and Katie Wales eds., Dialectal Variation in English: Proceedings of the Harold Orton Centenary Conference 1998 (Leeds Studies in English 30), 181-204.

Stuart-Smith, Jane and Fiona Tweedie (2000) "Final Report to the Leverhulme Trust: Accent Change in Glaswegian: A Sociophonetic Investigation (F/179/AX)".

Trotter, Robert (1901) "The Scottish language", The Gallovidian 3:9, 22-29. Describes an Irish/English influenced form of speech which supposedly originated in Glasgow in the mid-nineteenth century.

Watson, Roderick (1991) "This is me tokn … this is ma trooth': alternative voices from dialect to Demotic in Modern Scottish poetry" in Joachim Schwend et al. eds. Literatur im Kontext/Literature in Context. Festschrift für Horst W. Drescher zum 60. Geburtstag, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 183-194.

 contents

 

41a. Modern Scots Dialects: West Central (Kintyre)

MacInnes, L. (1934) "Dialect of South Kintyre. An interesting study", presented to the Kintyre Antiquarian Society [? PROCEEDINGS], 1-31.

MacInnes, L. (1936) The Dialect of South Kintyre, PUBLISHER, PLACE OF PUBLICATION.

MacVicar, Angus (1977) "Flory Loynachan. A famous song of Kintyre", The Glynns. Journal of the Glens of Antrim Historical Society 5, 17-19.

contents

 

41b. Modern Scots Dialects: West Central (Ayrshire)

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1988) "Linguistic stability and variation" in K. Ferrara et al. eds. Linguistic Change and Contact, Austin: University of Texas, 225-231.

Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1997) "Ayrshire as a linguistic area" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World,Vol.1, General Studies, British Isles, North America. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 159-171.

McClure, J. Derrick ([1988]) "The importance of local dialect in a regional literary tradition: Ayrshire and Aberdeenshire compared", Literature of Region and Nation 1:2, 1-16.

* Murison, David (1959) "Ayrshire speech in the time of Burns" in John Strawhorn ed., Ayrshire at the Time of Burns vol.5 in Collections of the Ayrshire Archeological and Natural History Society, 222-231.

Pate, Robert (1997) 120 Scotch Poems of Robert Burns in his own Dialect Wigtown: G. C. Book Publishers. Rendered in his own phonetic system. Inspired by Wilson (1925) below, but independent.

Wilson, James (1923) The Dialect of Robert Burns as Spoken in Central Ayrshire, Oxford University Press.

Wilson, Sir James (1925) Scottish Poems of Robert Burns in his Native Dialect London: Oxford University Press. Transcriptions in Wilson's own phonetic system. Inspiration for Pate (1997) above.

Wright, Thomas (1925/26) "The dialect of Ayrshire", Proceedings of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow 54, 43-53.

Wright, Thomas (1929) "Grammar of the Dialect of Tarbolton Ayrshire", unpublished University of Glasgow PhD thesis.

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42. Modern Scots Dialects: South West

Cromek, R. H. (1810) Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song, London. Texts from speech.

MacTaggart, John (1824) The Scottish Gallovidian Encyclopedia, PUBLISHER, PLACE OF PUBLICATION.

* Milroy, James (1982) "Some connections between Galloway and Ulster speech", Scottish Language 1, 23-29.

Riach, W. A. D. (1978) "A Dialect Study of Comparative Areas in Galloway with Particular Reference to the Irish Connection", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

* Riach, W. A. D. (1979,1980,1982) "A dialect study of comparative areas in Galloway", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 9, 1-16; Supplement 12, 43-60; Scottish Language 1, 13-22.

Riach, W. A. D. (1984) "Galloway schools dialect survey", Scottish Language 3, 49-59.

Riach, W. A. D. (1988) A Galloway Glossary, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Papers 7.

Scott, W. A. (1925/26) "The vernacular of mid-Nithsdale", Transactions and Journal of Proceedings of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural Historical and Antiquarian Society, 3rd series 13, 10-44.

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43. Modern Scots Dialects: Southern

Catford, J. C. (1935) "Specimen of the dialect of Morebattle", Le Maître Phonétique, DETAILS.

Glauser, Beat (1974) The Scottish-English Linguistic Border. Lexical Aspects, Bern: Francke.

Johnston, Paul (1979) "A Synchronic and Historical Study of Border Area Bimoric Vowel Systems", unpublished University of Edinburgh PhD thesis.

Mather, James (1980) "The dialect of the Eastern Borders", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 12, 30-42.

Mather, James Y. (1995) "Dialect" in Donald Omand ed. The Border Book Edinburgh: Birlinn, 193-202. Compares Murray, Grant, and Linguistic Survey of Scotland findings relevant to the Borders. Includes the only report known to me of grammatical material from the Linguistic Survey of Scotland, albeit brief.

Smith, Elliot Cowan (1927-31) "Braid Haaick. A Treatise on the Vernacular Speech of Hawick", Transactions of the Hawick Archaeological Society, 8-[END PAGE].

Speitel, H. H. (1969) "An areal typology of isoglosses near the Scottish-English Border", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 36, 49-66.

Speitel, H. H. (1978) "The word geography of the Borders", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 6, 17-37.

Vaiana, Mary (1972) "A Study in the Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland", unpublished University of Indiana PhD thesis.

Vaiana, Mary (1974) "The great Southern Scots conspiracy: pattern in the development of Northern English" in John Anderson and Charles Jones eds. Historical Linguistics vol.2, Amsterdam: North Holland, 403-426.

Watson, George (1923) The Roxburghshire Word-Book, being a Record of the Special Vernacular Vocabulary of the County of Roxburgh with an Appendix of Specimens, Cambridge University Press.

Wettstein, P. (1942) The Phonology of a Berwickshire Dialect, Zurich: Bienne.

* Zai, Rudolph (1942) The Phonology of the Morebattle Dialect, Lucerne: Ræber.

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44. Modern Scots Dialects: Ulster

It is difficult to separate Ulster Scots and Hiberno-English. I have not attempted to include here all of the discussions of Irish/Early Modern English/Scots influences in the formation of Hiberno-English, or the discussion of Hiberno-English and Ulster Scots as influences on other varieties of English, particularly American English. See also english.

Adams, G. Brendan (1956) "Patterns of word distribution", Ulster Folk Life 2, 6-13.

Adams, G. Brendan (1956) "The phonology of the Antrim dialect. I: historical introduction with special reference to the problem of vowel length", Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 57:C:3. 69-152.

Adams, G. Brendan (1958) "The emergence of Ulster as a distinct dialect area", Ulster Folklife 4, 61-73.

[Adams, G. Brendan] ed. (1964) Ulster Dialects. An Introductory Symposium, Cultra: Ulster Folk Museum.

Adams, G. Brendan (1965) "The Ulster advanced /ü/ phoneme", Ulster Dialect Archive Bulletin 3, 3-28.

Adams, G. Brendan (1966, 1967; 1986) "The work and words of haymaking" in G. Brendan Adams, ed. Michael Barry and Philip Tilling The English Dialects of Ulster. An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech, Cultra: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 51-96. Originally published in Ulster Folk Life 12 (1966), 66-91; 13 (1967), 29-53.

Adams, G. Brendan (1967, 1986) "Northern England as a source of Ulster dialects" in G. Brendan Adams, ed. Michael Barry and Philip Tilling The English Dialects of Ulster. An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech, Cultra: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 33-36. Originally published in Ulster Folklife 13, 69-74.

Adams, G. Brendan (1971) "Ulster dialect origins", Ulster Folklife 17, 99-102.

Adams, G. Brendan (1977) "The dialects of Ulster" in D. O'Muirithe ed. The English Language in Ireland, Cork: Mercier Press, 56-70.

Adams, G. Brendan (1978, 1986) "Some Ulster words describing persons and animals" in G. Brendan Adams, ed. Michael Barry and Philip Tilling The English Dialects of Ulster. An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech, Cultra: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 37-50. Originally published in Ulster Folklife 24, 69-82.

Adams, G. Brendan (1980, 1986) "Common [consonantal] features in Ulster Irish and Ulster English" in G. Brendan Adams, ed. Michael Barry and Philip Tilling The English Dialects of Ulster. An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech, Cultra: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 105-112. Originally published in R. Thelwall ed. Linguistic Studies in Honour of Paul Christophersen. Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning 7, New University of Ulster, Coleraine, 85-104.

Adams, G. Brendan (1981) "The voiceless velar fricative in Northern Hiberno-English" in Michael Barry ed. Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University, 106-117.

Adams, G. Brendan et al. (1985) "The Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech: a reappraisal of the techniques of traditional dialect geography" in John Kirk et al. eds. Studies in Linguistic Geography, London: Croom Helm, 67-80.

Adams, J. R. R. (1989) "A preliminary checklist of works containing Ulster dialect 1700-1900", Linen Hall Review 6:3, 10-12.

Allan, Alasdair (2000) "Language and politics: a perspective from Scotland" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 127-131.

Anonymous (1993) "Robert Huddleston and the Ulster-Scots tongue", Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 1, 10-11.

Barry, Michael (1981) Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University.

Barry, Michael (1981) "Towards a description of a regional standard pronunciation of English in Ulster" in Michael Barry ed. Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University, 47-51.

Barry, Michael (1981) "The methodology of the Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English speech" in Michael Barry ed. Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University, 18-46.

Barry, Michael (1981) "The southern boundaries of Northern Hiberno-English speech" in Michael Barry ed. Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland Vol.1, Papers Arising from the Tape-recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech, Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University, 52-95.

* Barry, Michael (1982) "The English language in Ireland" in in Richard Bailey and Manfred Görlach eds. English as a World Language, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 84-133.

Barry, Michael (1983) "Ulster dialect in formal written English", NISLF [Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum] Journal 9, 81-87. Revealing slips by GCE A-level students.

Braidwood, John (1964) "Ulster and Elizabethan English" in G. Brendan Adams ed. Ulster Dialects: An Introductory Symposium, Cultra: Ulster Folk Museum, 5-109.

Braidwood, John (1965) "Towards an Ulster dialect dictionary", Ulster Dialect Archive Bulletin 4, 3-14. Partly a review of the Ulster material in The Scottish National Dictionary.

Braidwood, John (1972) "Terms for 'left-handed' in the Ulster dialects", Ulster Folklife 18, 98-110.

Braidwood, John (1974) "Crowls and runts: Ulster dialect terms for 'the weakling of the litter'", Ulster Folklife 20, 71-84.

Braidwood, John (1965,1966,1971,1978,1987) "Local bird names in Ulster - a glossary", Ulster Folklife 11, 98-135; 12, 104-107; 17, 81-84; 24, 83-87; 33, 83-85.

Braidwood, John (1975) "The Ulster Dialect Lexicon", Inaugural Lecture, Queen's University of Belfast, 23 April 1969.

Braidwood, John (1986) "The Ulster dialect: the distinctive speech of a distinctive people" in EDITOR Ulster: An Ethnic Nation? Lurgan: Ulster Society, 24-40.

Connolly, Linde (1982) "Spoken English in Ulster in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries", Ulster Folklife 28, 33-39.

Connolly, Rosalind (1981) "An Analysis of some Linguistic Information obtained from Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Ulster Poetry", unpublished Queen's University of Belfast PhD thesis.

Corrigan, Karen (1990) "Northern Hiberno-English: the state of the art", Irish University Review 20:1, 91-119.

Corrigan, Karen (1992) "Glens' dialect from Moira O'Neill to Michael J. Murphy", Ulster Folklife 38, 98-108.

Corrigan, Karen (2000) "'What bees to be maun be': aspects of deontic and epistemic modality in a northern dialect of Irish English", English World-Wide 21:1, 25-62. The origin of the construction is undoubtedly as given in A Concise Ulster Dictionary s.v bud (i.e. redivision of bude to with the /i/ reflex Vowel 7 in certain dialects of Ulster Scots as in North-Eastern Scots), but the discussion of epistemic usage stands).

Crow, Bryan and Brendan Gunn (1986) "Linguistic and pragmatic aspects of Northern Irish speech: perceptions and convergences", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 8, 1-49.

Cruttenden, Alan (1981) "Falls and rises: meanings and universals", Journal of Linguistics 17:1, 77-92.

Douglas-Cowie, Ellen, Robert Cowie and Joan Rahilly (1995) "The social distribution of intonation patterns in Belfast" in J. W. Lewis ed. Studies in General and English Phonetics in Honours of J. D. O'Connor, London: Routledge, 180-186.

Farren, Seán (2000) "Institutional infrastructure post-Good Friday Agreement: the new institutions and devolved government" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 121-125.

Fenton, James (1994, 1995) "The hamely tongue: the story so far", Ulster Local Studies 16:2, 22-28. Reprinted as "The hamely tongue: the making of an Ulster-Scots dictionary", Ullans 4, 25-30.

* Fenton, James (1995, 2000) The Hamely Tongue. A Personal Record of Ulster-Scots in County Antrim, 2nd edn. [no place of publication]: Ullans Press. Originally published Newtonards: Ulster Scots Academic Press. An annotated glossary showing present day currency.

Filppula, Markku (1991) "Subordinating and in Hiberno-English syntax: Irish or English origin?" in P. Sture Ureland and George Broderick eds. Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 617-631.

Filppula, Markku (1999) The Grammar of Irish English. Language in Hibernian Style London and New York: Routledge. Definitive study of substratum, superstratum and adstratum sources, including Scots.

Finlay, Catherine (1987) "Grammatical Variation in the Speech of Belfast Schoolchildren", unpublished University of Ulster D.Phil. thesis.

Finlay, Catherine (1994) "Syntactic variations in Belfast English", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 12, 69-97.

Finlay, Catherine and Michael McTear (1986) "Syntactic variation in the speech of Belfast schoolchildren" in John Harris et al. eds. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland, Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College Dublin, 175-186.

FitzDuff, Mari (2000) "Language and politics in a global perspective" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 75-80.

Gailey, Alan (1962) "Ropes and rope-twisters", Ulster Folklife 8, 72-82.

Gailey, Alan (1972) "The last sheaf in the North of Ireland", Ulster Folklife 18, 1-33.

Görlach, Manfred (2000) "Ulster Scots: a language?" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 13-31. Reprinted in Manfred Görlach, Still More Englishes (2002) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 69-86.

Gregg, Robert (1958,1959) "Notes on the phonology of a County Antrim Scotch-Irish dialect", Orbis 7:2, 392-406; 8:2, 400-424.

* Gregg, Robert (1963,1985) The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in the Province of Ulster, Canadian Federation for the Humanities. Originally a University of Edinburgh PhD thesis, "The Boundaries of the Scotch-Irish Dialects in Ulster".

Gregg, Robert (1964) "Scotch-Irish urban speech in Ulster" in G. Brendan Adams ed. Ulster Dialects: An Introductory Symposium, Cultra: Ulster Folk Museum, 163-192.

* Gregg, Robert (1972) "The Scotch-Irish dialect boundaries in Ulster" in Martyn Wakelin ed. Patterns in the Folk Speech of the British Isles, London: Athlone, 109-139.

Gregg, Robert (1972) "Linguistic change observed: three types of phonological change in the Scotch-Irish dialects" in André Rigault and René Charbonneau eds. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Held at the University of Montreal and McGill University 22-28 August 1971 The Hague/Paris: Mouton, 722-724.

Gregg, Robert (1973) "The diphthongs ǝI and aI in Scottish, Scotch-Irish and Canadian English", Canadian Journal of Linguistics 18, 136-145.

Gregg, Robert (1975) "The distribution of raised and lowered diphthongs as reflexes of M.E. i: in two Scotch-Irish (SI) dialects" in Wolfgang Dressler and F. V. Mares eds. Phonologica 1972; Akten der 2. Internationalen Phonologie-Tagung, Wien, 1972, Munchen: Fink, 101-105.

Gregg, Robert (1976) "Dialect mixture in Scotch-Irish urban speech", Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum Journal2, 35-37.

Hadden, Tom (2000) "Should a Bill of Rights for Northern Ireland protect language rights?" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 111-120.

* Harris, John (1984) "English in the north of Ireland" in Peter Trudgill ed. Language in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, 115-134.

Harris, John (1985) Phonological Variation and Change. Studies in Hiberno-English, Cambridge University Press.

Harris, John (1986) "The lexicon in phonological variation" in John Harris et al. eds. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland, Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studied, Trinity College Dublin, 187-208.

Harris, John (1986) "Phonetic constraints on sociolinguistic variation", Sheffield Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 3, 120-143.

Harris, John (1989) "Towards a lexical analysis of sound change in progress", Journal of Linguistics 25, 35-56.

Harris, John (1991) "Conservatism versus substratal transfer in Irish English" in Peter Trudgill and J. K. Chambers eds. Dialects of English. Studies in Grammatical Variation, Harlow: Longman, 191-212.

* Harris, John (1993) "The grammar of Irish English" in James Milroy and Lesley Milroy eds. Real English. The Dialects of English in the British Isles, London: Longman, 118-131.

Harris, John (1997) "Phonological systems in collision in the North of Ireland" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 201-224.

Henry, Alison (1992) "Infinitives in a for-to dialect", Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 10, 279-301.

Henry, Alison (1994) "Singular concord in Belfast English", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 12, 134-176.

Henry, Alison (1995) Belfast English and Standard English: Dialect Variation and Parameter Setting, New York: Oxford University Press.

Henry, Alison (1997) "The syntax of Belfast English" in Jeffrey Kallen ed. Focus on Ireland, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 89-108.

Henry, P. L. (1964) "Anglo-Irish word-charts" in [G. Brendan Adams] ed. (1964) Ulster Dialects. An Introductory Symposium, Cultra: Ulster Folk Museum, 147-161. Includes a few Ulster Scots localities in Co. Antrim and Co. Donegal. Maps 'brood of chickens, borrowing days, small potatoes, the discard of seed potatoes, flail-joint, toadstool'.

Herbison, Ivan (1989) Language, Literature, and Cultural Identity: An Ulster-Scots Perspective, Ballymena: Dunclug Press.

Herbison, Ivan (1993) "Oor ain native tung: Talking Scots", Fortnight, Special Supplement, Talking Scots, April 1993, 13-15.

Herbison, Ivan (1997) "'The rest is silence'; some remarks on the disappearance of Ulster-Scots poetry" in John Erskine and Gordon Lucy eds. Cultural Traditions in Northern Ireland: Varieties of Scottishness: Exploring the Ulster Scottish Connection. Prodeedings of the Cultural Traditions Group Conference March 1996, Belfast: The Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast, 129-145.

Hickey, Raymond (1999) "Ireland as a linguistic area", Ulster Folklife 45, 36-53.

Horsbroch, Dauvit (2000) "Mair as a sheuch atween Scotland an Ulster: twa policie for the Scots leid?" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 133-141.Jarman, E. and A. Cruttenden (1976) "Belfast intonation and the myth of the fall", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 6, 4-12.

Kallen, Jeffrey (1986) "The co-occurrence of do and be in Hiberno-English" in John Harris et al. eds. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Hiberno-English, Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College, 133-148.

Kallen, Jeffrey (1991) "Intra-language transfer and plural subject concord in Irish and Appalachian English", Teanga 11, 11-21.

Kallen, Jeffrey (1999) "Irish English and the Ulster Scots controversy", Ulster Folklife 45, 70-88.

Kay, Billy (1994) "The Scots ower the Sheugh" in I. S. Wood ed. Scotland and Ulster Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 88-96.

* Kingsmore, Rona (1995) Ulster Scots Speech. A Sociolinguistic Study, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Kirk, John (1992) "The Northern Ireland Transcribed Corpus of Speech" in G. Leitner ed. New Directions in Language Corpora, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 65-73. This corpus is transcribed from the Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English.

Kirk, John (1997) "Ethnolinguistic differences in Northern Ireland" in Alan Thomas ed. Issues and Methods in Dialectology, Department of Linguistics, University of Wales Bangor, 55-68.

Kirk, John and Georgina Millar (1998) "Verbal aspect in the Scots and English of Ulster", Scottish Language 17, 82-107.

Kirk, John (as 1998) "Ulster Scots: realities and myths", Ulster Folklife 44, 69-93.

Kirk, John (2000) "Two Ullans texts" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 33-44.

Knoke, Irene (1997) "Attitudes towards Belfast Accents", unpublished M.A. dissertation, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg.

Lunney, Linde (1994) "Ulster attitudes to Scottishness: the eighteenth century and after" in Ian Wood ed. Scotland and Ulster, Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 56-70.

Lunney, Linde (1997) "The nature of the Ulster-Scots language community" in John Erskine and Gordon Lucy eds. Cultural Traditions in Northern Ireland: Varieties of Scottishness: Exploring the Ulster Scottish Connection. Prodeedings of the Cultural Traditions Group Conference March 1996, Belfast: The Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast, 113-128.

Lutton, William, ed. Francis Biggar (1923, 1976) Montiaghisms: Ulster Dialect Words and Phrases, Belfast: Linen Hall Library.

Macafee, Caroline (1990) "Mankeepers", By Word of Mouth 18, 40-41.

* Macafee, Caroline ed. (1996) A Concise Ulster Dictionary, Oxford University Press.

Macafee, Caroline (2001) "Lowland sources of Ulster Scots: some comparisons between Robert Gregg's data and The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland (volume 3)" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Language Links. The Languages of Scotland and Ireland, Belfast: Queen's University, 119-132.

McArthur, Tom ed. (1992) The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press. Various articles by Loreto Todd. Abridged edition, 1996.

McBride, Doreen (1993) Speakin' Norn Iron as She Shud be Spoke. A Guide to the Language Spoken in the North of Ireland, Northern Ireland: Adare Press.

McCafferty, Kevin (1994) "No Prods or Fenians here! The absence of Northern Ireland social organisation in sociolinguistic studies", Nordlyd 21, 1-32.

McCafferty, Kevin (1995) "Runagates revisited, or 'Even English in these airts took a lawless turn'", Causeway 2/3, 9-15.

McCafferty, Kevin (1996) "Voicing differences: variation and change in Derry/Londonderry English in relation to ethnicity, class and sex" in Gerd Bjørhovde and Gøril Rogne eds. Proceedings from the VIth Nordic Conference for English Studies vol.III, School of Languages and Literature, Univeristy of Tromsø, 365-384.

McCafferty, Kevin (1996) "Frae 'wile norn aksints' tae oor ain national leid?", Causeway 3:1 (Spring 1996), 39-44; 3:2 (Summer 1996), 48-53.

McCafferty, Kevin (1997) "Open Minds, Barricaded Tongues: A Study of Ethnicity and Language Change in Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland", Dr. art. thesis, Univeristy of Tromsø.

McCafferty, Kevin (1998) "Barriers to change: ethnic division and phonological innovation in Northern Hiberno-English", English World-Wide 19:1, 7-32.

McCafferty, Kevin (1998) "Shared accents, divided speech community? Change in Northern Ireland English", Language Variation and Change 10: 97-121.

McCafferty, Kevin (1999) "(London)Derry: between Ulster and local speech - class, ethnicity and language change" in Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty eds. Urban Voices. Accent Studies in the British Isles London: Edward Arnold, 246-264.

McCafferty, Kevin (2001) Ethnicity and Language Change. English in (London)Derry, Northern Ireland Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.

McCaughan, Michael (1968) "Terminology of flax-scutching", Ulster Folklife 14, 6-13.

McConnell, Seamus (1989) Talk of the Town: A Derry Phrase Book, Londonderry: Guildhall Press.

McConnell, Seamus (1990) The Folly Up. Talk of the Town 2, Londonderry: Guildhall Press.

McConnell, Seamus (1996) The Wile Big Derry Phrase Book Londonderry: Guildhall Press.

McIntyre, Rae ed. (1990) Some Handlin': The Dialect Heritage of North Ulster, Limavady: North-West Books.

Maclaran, R. (1976) "The variable ( ), a relic form with social correlates", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 1:2, 45-68.

Mac Póilin, Aodán (1999) "Language, identity and politics in Northern Ireland", Ulster Folklife 45, 106-132.

Marshall, J. J. (1904, 1905, 1906) "The dialect of Ulster", Ulster Journal of Archaeology 10, 121-130; 11, 64-70, 122-125, 175-179; 12, 18-21.

Marshall, William (1936) Ulster Speaks, London: BBC.

Mather, James (1965) Review of G. Brendan Adams ed. Ulster Dialects. An Introductory Symposium, Scottish Studies 9, 212-218.

Millar, Sharon (1984) "The teaching of the spoken English language in Belfast schools", Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum Journal 10, 55-76.

Millar, Sharon (1987) "Accents in the Classroom: Sociolinguistic Perspectives on the Teaching of Elocution in Belfast Secondary-level Schools", unpublished Queens University of Belfast PhD thesis.

Millar, Sharon (1987) "The question of ethno-linguistic differences in Northern Ireland", English World-Wide 8, 201-213.

Millar, Sharon (1990) "The role of ethnic identity in accent evaluation in Northern Ireland" in Graham Caie et al. ed. Proceedings of the Fourth Scandinavian Conference on English Studies, Copenhagen: Department of English, University of Copenhagen, 243-253.

Milroy, James (1976) "Length and height variations in the vowels of Belfast vernacular", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 1, 69-110.

Milroy, James (1978) "Stability and change in non-standard English in Belfast", Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum Journal 4, 72-82.

* Milroy, James (1981) Regional Accents of English: Belfast, Belfast: Blackstaff.

Milroy, James (1991) "The interpretation of social constraints on variation in Belfast English" in Jenny Cheshire ed. English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 75-85.

* Milroy, Lesley (1980) Language and Social Networks, Oxford: Blackwell.

Milroy, Lesley and P. McClenaghan (1977) "Stereotyped reactions to four educated accents in Ulster", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 2, 1- 10. Includes Scots and RP.

Montgomery, Michael (1992) "The Anglicization of Scots in early seventeenth century Ulster", Studies in Scottish Literature 26, 50-64.

Montgomery, May and Francis (1993) The Barnish County Antrim Dialect Dictionary. Local Sayings, Words and Phrases etc., privately published: County Antrim.

Montgomery, Michael (1994) "An early letter in Ulster-Scots", Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 2, 45-51.

Montgomery, Michael (1995) "The linguistic value of Ulster emigrant letters", Ulster Folklife 41, 1-16.

Montgomery, Michael (1997) "The rediscovery of the Ulster Scots language" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes around the World: Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 211-226.

* Montgomery, Michael and Robert Gregg (1997) "The Scots language in Ulster" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 569-622.

Montgomery, Michael and Stephen Nagle (1993) "Double modals in Scotland and the Southern United States: trans-Atlantic inheritance or independent development?", Folia Linguistica HistoricaI 14, 91-107.

Montgomery, Michael (1997) "Making Transatlantic connections between varieties of English: The case of plural verbal -s", Journal of English Linguistics, 25:2, 122-141.

Montgomery, Michael (1999) "The position of Ulster Scots", Ulster Folklife 45, 89-105.

Odlin, Terence (1995) "Causation in language contact: a devilish problem" Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College Dublin, Occasional Papers 41. Argues that devil negation reached Hiberno-English from Scots, which in turn is influenced by Scottish Gaelic.

Odlin, Terence (1996) "'Sorrow penny yee payed for my drink': taboo, euphemism and a phantom substrate" Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College Dublin, Occasional Papers 43. Argues that sorrow negation, like devil negation, reached Hiberno-English from Scots, which in turn is influenced by Scottish Gaelic.

Odlin, Terence (1998) "On the affective and cognitive bases of language transfer" in W. R. Cooper ed. Compare or Contrast? Current Issues in Cross-Language Research Tampere English Studies 6, 81-106. Includes a summary of the sorrow and devil negation arguments given fully in the two preceeding items.

O'Dowd, Anne (1981) Meitheal. A Study of Co-operative Labour in Rural Ireland, Dublin: Comhairle Bhéaloideas Éireann An Coláiste Ollscoile. Includes some linguistic-geographical maps.

O'Kane, D. (1977) "Overt and covert prestige in Belfast vernacular speakers: the results of self-report tests", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 2:3, 1-23.

O'Kane, William ed. (1991) You Don't Say: The Tyrone Crystal Book of Ulster Dialect, Dungannon: Irish World.

O'Neill, Dervilla (1987) "Ethnolinguistic Differences within a Northern Irish Community" unpublished Trinity College, Dublin, MPhil thesis. I HAVE NOT SEEN THIS, SO DON'T KNOW WHETHER IT PERTAINS TO ULSTER SCOTS.

Ó Riagáin, Dónall (2000) "Language rights as human rights in Europe and in Northern Ireland" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 65-73.

Parsley, Ian (2000) "Language, discrimination and the Good Friday Agreement: the case of Ulster-Scots" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds. Language and Politics. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1, Belfast: Queen's University, 89-90.

Patterson, David (1860) The Provincialisms of Belfast and the Surrounding Districts Pointed out and Corrected, Belfast: Alex Mayne.

Patterson, William (1880) A Glossary of Words in Use in the Counties of Antrim and Down, London: English Dialect Society. The major source of Ulster Scots material in The English Dialect Dictionary.

Pepper, John [Fred Gamble] (1981) John Pepper's Ulster-English Dictionary, Belfast: Appletree Press.

Pitts, Ann (1982) "Urban Influence in Northern Irish English: A Comparison of Variation in Two Communities", unpublished University of Michigan PhD thesis.

Pitts, Ann (1982) "Urban influence on phonological variation in the Northern Irish speech community", English World-Wide 6, 59-85.

Pitts, Ann (1982) "The elusive vernacular: an account of fieldwork techniques in urban sociolinguistic studies in Northern Ireland", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 6, 104-122.

Pitts, Ann (1986) "Differing prestige values for the (ky) variable in Lurgan" in John Harris et al. eds. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland, Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studied, Trinity College Dublin, 209-221.

Pitts, Ann (1989) "Is urban influence varb-able?" in Ralph Fasold and Deborah Schiffrin eds. Language Change and Variation Amsterdam: Benjamins, 95-106.

Policansky, Linda (1982) "Grammatical variation in Belfast English", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 6, 37-66.

Rahilly, Joan (1994) "Phonetic characteristics of prominence in Belfast intonation", Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 12, 225-245.

Rahilly, Joan (1997) "Aspects of prosody in Hiberno-English: the case of Belfast" in Jeffrey Kallen ed Focus on Ireland, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 109-132.

Robinson, Philip (1984) The Plantation of Ulster, Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. Map 10 places Gregg's Ulster Scots area within its demographic context.

Robinson, Philip (1989) "The Scots language in seventeenth-century Ulster", Ulster Folklife 35, 86-99.

* Robinson, Philip (1997) Ulster-Scots. A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language, The Ullans Press.

Simmons, D. A. (n.d.) A List of Peculiar Words and Phrases Formerly in Common Use in the County Armagh together with Expressions at one Time Current in South Donegal, Dublin: Freemans Journal. Unfortunately the two sources are mixed together.

Skea, Margaret (1982) "Change and Variation in the Lexicon of a Non-Standard Dialect: A Sociolinguistic Study of Dialect Semantics in North Down", unpublished Ulster Polytechnic, Jordanstown PhD thesis.

Todd, Loreto (1984) "By their tongue divided: towards an analysis of speech communities in Northern Ireland", English World-Wide 5:2, 159-180

Todd, Loreto (1989) "Cultures in conflict: varieties of English in Northern Ireland" in O. García and R. Otheguy eds. English Across Cultures/Cultures Across English, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 335-355.

Todd, Loreto (1990) Words Apart. A Dictionary of Northern Ireland English, Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe. Etymologies to be treated with caution - she emphasises similarities with Irish (whether borrowing from or into Irish or genetic), at the expense of derivations from Scots and English dialects.

Traynor, Michael (1953) The English Dialect of Donegal. A Glossary, Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.

Wilson, John (1993) "Discourse marking and accounts of violence in Northern Ireland", Text 13, 455-475.

Zwickl, S. (1996) "Eine Wortgeographie Nordirlands", unpublished Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg Magisterarbeit thesis.

Zwickl, Simone (2001) "Dialect knowledge and use across the Northern Irish/Irish Border: linguistic and extralinguistic factors" in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Language Links. The Languages of Scotland and Ireland, Belfast: Queen's University, 149-69. Mainly concerned with Hiberno-English, but some Scots lexical items.

 

 contents

 

45. Highland and Island English

Bähr, Dieter (1974) Standard Englisch und seine geographischen Varienten Munich. See pp.147-174 on Highland English.

Bird, Barbara (1997) "Past and present studies of Hebridean English phonology" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 287-300.

Clement, R. David (1980) "Highland English", Scottish Literary Journal Supplement 12, 13-18.

Clement, David (1997) "Highland English" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 301-307.

Dorian, Nancy (1970) "A substitute name-system in the Scottish Highlands", American Anthropologist 72, 303-319. The practice of using by-names is passing over into English as Gaelic dies in East Sutherland.

Dorian, Nancy (1970) "East Sutherland by-naming", Scottish Studies 14, 59-65. The practice of using by-names is passing over into English as Gaelic dies in East Sutherland.

Filppula, Markku (1997) "Cross-dialectal parallels and language contacts" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. I Language History, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 943-957.

Filppula, Markku (1999) The Grammar of Irish English. Language in Hibernian Style London and New York: Routledge. Definitive study of substratum, superstratum and adstratum sources, including Scots. Comparisons with Hebridean English.

Gregson, Michael and Kay Deas (DATE? C.1990) The Crack and the Cant, Inverness: Gadgie Publications. An unfunny comic dictionary of Highland English.

McRitchie, David (1899/1901) "Shelta: The caird's language", Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness 24, 429-468.

Millar, Robert McColl (1996) "Gaelic-influenced Scots in pre-revolutionary Maryland" in P. Sture Ureland and Iain Clarkson eds. Language Contact Across the North Atlantic. Proceedings of the Working Groups held at the University College, Galway (Ireland), August 29 - September 3, 1992 and the University of Göteborg (Sweden), August 16 - August 21, 1993, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 387-410.

Odlin, Terence (1992) "Transferability and linguistic substrates", Second Language Research 8, 171-202.

Odlin, Terence (1997) "Bilingualism and substrate influence: a look at clefts and reflexives" in Jeffrey Kallen ed. Focus on Ireland, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 35-50.

Sabban, Annette (1982) Gälisch-Englischer Sprachkontakt. Zur Variabilität des Englischen im Gälischsprachigen Gebiet Schottlands. Eine empirische Studie, Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Sabban, Annette (1984) "Investigations into the syntax of Hebridean English", Scottish Language 3, 5-32.

Sabban, Annette (1985) "On the variability of Hebridean English syntax: the verbal group" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 125-144.

* Shuken, Cynthia (1984) "Highland and Island English" in Peter Trudgill ed. Language in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, 152-166.

Shuken, Cynthia (1985) "Variation in Hebridean English" in Manfred Görlach ed. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 145-158.

Shuken, Cynthia (1986) "Vowel systems in Hebridean English", Scottish Language 5, 131-139.

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46. Influence of Scots on Gaelic

Dorian, Nancy (1990) "Internally and externally motivated change in language contact settings: doubts about dichotomy" in Charles Jones ed. Historical Linguistics. Problems and Prespectives, London/New York: Longman, 131-155.

MacDonald, Kenneth (1986), "Some Scots words in the Gaelic vocabulary of Applecross", Scottish Language 5, 106-109.

* Meek, Donald (1989) "The Scots-Gaelic scribes of late Medieval Perthshire: an overview of the orthography and contents of the Book of the Dean of Lismore" in J. Derrick McClure and Michael Spiller eds. (1989) Bryght Lanternis: Essays on the Language and Literature of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland, Aberdeen University Press, 387-404.

* Ó Baoill, Colm (1991) "Borrowing between Scots and Gaelic: some lessons to be learned from the SND", Scottish Language 10, 9-17.

Ó Baoill, Colm (1997) "The Scots-Gaelic interface" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 551-568.

Ó Dochartaigh, Cathair (1996) "Two loans in Scottish Gaelic" Scottish Gaelic Studies 17, 305-313.

* Quick, Ian (1986) "English and Scots military loanwords in Scottish Gaelic", Scottish Language 5, 99-105.

* Quick, Ian (1988) "The Scots element in the Gaelic vocabulary of domestic furnishings and utensils" in Derick Thomson ed. Gaelic and Scots in Harmony: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Languages of Scotland (University of Glasgow, 1988), Department of Celtic, University of Glasgow, 36-42.

Thomson, R. L. (1983) "Loanwords, English and Scots" in Derick Thomson ed. The Companion to Gaelic Scotland Oxford: Blackwell, 152-153.

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47. Influence of Scots on English

Allan, W. Scott and Donna Starks (2000) "'No-one sounds like us?' A comparison of New Zealand and other Southern Hemisphere Englishes" in Allan Bell and Koenraad Kuiper eds. New Zealand English Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 53-83. Includes a brief treatment of the KIT vowel, against a Scottish origin of the NZ realisation.

Bailey, Guy and Garry Ross (1992) "The evolution of a vernacular" in Matti Rissanen et al. eds. History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 519-531. On double modals.

Bartlett, Christopher (1992) "Regional variation in New Zealand English: the case of Southland", New Zealand English Newsletter 6, 5-15.

* Bauer, Laurie (1997) "Attempting to trace the Scottish influence in New Zealand" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World: Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Volume 2, Carribean, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 257-272.

Bauer, Laurie (2000) "The dialectal origins of New Zealand English" in Allan Bell and Koenraad Kuiper eds. New Zealand English Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 40-52. Maps the British origins of dialect-derived items in NZ, rather inconclusively.

Bauer, Laurie (2000) "On the origins of the New Zealand English accent", English World-Wide 20:2, 287-307.

Beal, Joan and Karen Corrigan (2000) "Comparing the present with the past to predict the future for Tyneside English", Newcastle and Durham Working Papers in Linguistics 6, 13-30. Speculates on Scots influence on Tyneside.

Britain, David and Peter Trudgill (1999) "Migration, dialect contact, new dialect formation and re-allocation: Canadian raising in England", Transactions of the Philological Society 97:2, 245-256. Britain has demonstrated Canadian raising in a contact variety in the East Anglian Fens, where Scottish influence is clearly lacking, thus supporting the re-allocation theory.

Cardell, Kerry and Cliff Cumming (1992/93) "Scotland's three tongues in Australia: Colonial Hamilton in the 1860s and 1870s", Scottish Studies 31, 40-62.

Clarke, Sandra (1997) "On establishing historical relationships between New and Old World varieties: habitual aspect and Newfoundland Vernacular English" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach vol.1, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 277-293. Seems unaware of Scots as a possible source of habitual marking with -s throughout the present tense.

Crozier, Alan (1984) "The Scotch-Irish influence on American English", American Speech 59, 310-331.

Cukor-Avila, Patricia (1997) "Change and stability in the use of verbal -s over time in AAVE" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World. Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach vol.1, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 295-306. (African American Vernacular English)

de la Cruz, Juan (1997) "The issue of double modals in the history of English revisited" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. I Language History, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 87-99.

Dannenberg,Clare and Walt Wolfram (1998) "Ethnic identity and grammatical restructuring: be(s) in Lumbee English", American Speech 73: 2, 139-159.

Dickinson, Meriwether (1941) "A Lexicographical Study of the Vocabulary of Greenup County, Kentucky, Set forth in Jesse Stuart's Beyond Dark Hills", unpublished University of Virginia, Charlottesville, thesis. Points out Scottish retentions.

Dressman, Michael (1979) "Redd up", American Speech 54, 141-145.

Fennel, Barbara and Ronald Butters (1996) "Historical and contemporary distribution of double modals in English" in Edgar Schneider ed. Focus on the USA, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 265-288.

* Filppula, Markku (1999) The Grammar of Irish English. Language in Hibernian Style London and New York: Routledge. Definitive study of substratum, superstratum and adstratum sources, including Scots.

Görlach, Manfred (1996) "Relic words as tools for linguistic geography" in Juhani Klemola et al. eds. Speech Past and Present: Studies in English Dialectology in Memory of Ossi Ihalainen Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 72-79. Very brief section on Scots words in Pitcairnese.

Hamilton, Anne Marie (1998) "The endurance of Scots in the United States", Scottish Language 17, 108-118.

Hook, Andrew (1999) From Goosecreek to Gandercleugh. Studies in Scottish-American Literary and Cultural History East Linton: Tuckwell. See Chapter 3 on rhetoric and politeness.

Jacobsson, Ulf (1962) Phonological Dialect Constituents in the Vocabulary of Standard English, Copenhagen: Lund Studies in English 31.

Kay, Billy (1995) "Mair licht on the mither tongue: Scots as a national language" in J. M. Fladmark ed. Sharing the Earth: Local Identity in Global Culture. Papers Presented at The Robert Gordon University Heritage Convention 1995 London: Donhead, 299-309.

Kurath, Hans (1928) "The origin of the dialectal differences in spoken American English", Modern Philology 25, 385-395.

Lass, Roger (1990) "Where do extraterritorial Englishes come from? Dialect input and recodification in transported Englishes" in Sylvia Adamson et al. eds. Papers from the 5th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 245-280.

* Montgomery, Michael (1989) "Exploring the roots of Appalachian English", English World-Wide 10:2, 227-278.

Montgomery, Michael (1991) "The roots of Appalachian English: Scots-Irish or British Southern?" in John Iscoe ed. Southern Appalachia and the South: A Region within a Region. Special issue of Journal of Appalachian Studies Association 3, 177-191.

Montgomery, Michael (1992) "The etymology of y'all". In Joan Hall et al. eds. Old English and New: Studies in Language and Linguistics in Honour of Frederic G. Cassidy, New York: Garland Press, 356-369.

Montgomery, Michael (1996) "How Scotch-Irish is your English?", Journal of East Tennessee History 67, 1-33.

Montgomery, Michael (1997) "Making Transatlantic connections between varieties of English: The case of plural verbal -s", Journal of English Linguistics, 25:2, 122-141.

Montgomery, Michael (1997) "A tale of two Georges. The language of Irish Indian traders in Colonial North America" in Jeffrey Kallen ed. Focus on Ireland, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 227-254. Evidence for the Northern Concord Rule in Co. Armagh and Dublin in the early eighteenth century.

* Montgomery, Michael (1997) "The Scotch-Irish element in Appalachian English: how broad? how deep?" in H. Tyler Blethen and Curtis W. Wood, Jr. eds Ulster and North America: Transatlantic Perspectives on the Scotch-Irish, Tuscaloosa/London: The University of Alabama Press, 189-212.

Montgomery, Michael et al. (1993) "The black men has wives and sweet harts [and third-person plural -s] just like the white men: evidence for verbal -s from written documents on nineteenth century African American speech", Language Variation and Change 5, 335-357.

Montgomery, Michael and Janet Fuller (1996) "What was verbal -s in nineteenth century African American English?" in Edgar Schneider ed. Focus on the USA, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 211-230.

Montgomery, Michael and John Kirk (1996) "The origin of the habitual verb be in American Black English: Irish or English or what?", Belfast Working Papers in Linguistics 11, 308-333.

Montgomery, Michael and Stephen Nagle (1993) "Double modals in Scotland and the United States: trans-Atlantic inheritance or independent development?", Folia Linguistica Historica 14, 91-107.

Montgomery, Michael and Philip Robinson (1996) "Ulster English as Janus: language contact across the Irish Sea and across the North Atlantic" in P. Sture Ureland and Iain Clarkson eds. Language Contact across the North Atlantic. Proceedings of the Working Groups held at University College, Galway (Ireland), August 29 - September 3, 1992 and the University of Göteborg (Sweden), August 16-21, 1993, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 411-426.

Montgomery, Michael and Margaret Mishoe (1999) "'He bees took up with a Yankee girl and moved up there to New York': the verb bes in the Carolinas and its history", American Speech 74:3, 240-281.

Montgomery, Michael (2000) "The Celtic element in American English" in Hildegard Tristram ed. The Celtic Englishes II Heidelberg: C. Winter, 231-64.

Murray, Thomas, Timothy Frazer and Beth Lee Simon (1996) "Need + past participle in American English", American Speech 71, 255-271.

Murray, Thomas and Beth Lee Simon (1999) "Want + past participle in American English", American Speech 74: 2, 140-164.

Nagle, Stephen (1993) "Double modals in early English" in Henk Aertsen and Robert Jeffers eds. DETAILS, 363-370.

Nagle, Stephen (1994) "The English double modal conspiracy", Diachronica 11:2, 199-211.

Nagle, Stephen (1997) "What is double about double modals?" in Raymond Hickey and Stanisław Puppel eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday, vol. II Linguistic Modelling, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1513-1526.

 Perry, J. (1970) "The Influence of the Literary Scots on the Diction of Popular English Prose 1738-1774", unpublished University of Pennsylvania PhD thesis.

Porter, Gerald (1999) "The ideology of misrepresentation: Scots in English broadsides" in Irma Taavitsainen et al. eds Writing in Nonstandard English Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 361-374.

Roberts, Paul (1953) "Sir Walter Scott's contributions to the English vocabulary", Publications of the Modern Languages Society of America 78, 189-210.

Šcur, G. S. (1978) "Concerning some peculiarities of the perfect in English" in Dietrich Hartmann et al. eds. Sprache in Gegenwart und Geschichte: Festschrift für Heinrich Matthias Heinrichs zum 65. Geburtstag, Cologne: Bohlau, 174-187. On omission of auxiliary have.

Smith, Jennifer and Sali Tagliamonte (1998) "'We were all thegither … I think we was all thegither': Was regularization in Buckie English", World Englishes 17, 105-26.

Tagliamonte, Sali and Jennifer Smith (1999) "Old was; new ecology: viewing English through the sociolinguistic filter" in S. Poplack ed. The English History of African American Vernacular English Oxford: Blackwell, 141-171. Data from black and white communities in Nova Scotia and from Buckie (North-East Scots) on was with second person singular and with NP v. pronoun subject.

Tulloch, Graham (1980) The Language of Walter Scott. A Study of his Scottish and Period Language, London: Deutsch.

Tulloch, Graham (1997) "The Scots language in Australia" in Charles Jones ed. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, 623-636.

Tulloch, Graham (1997) "Scots as a literary language in Australia" in Edgar Schneider ed. Englishes Around the World: Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach, Volume 2, Carribean, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 319-334.

Weekley, Ernest (1931, 1935) "Walter Scott and the English language", Atlantic Monthly 147, 595-601. Reprinted in Ernest Weekley Something about Words, London: John Murray, 69-84.

Wolfram, Walt and Clare Dannenberg (2000) "Dialect identity in a tri-ethnic context: the case of Lumbee American Indian English", English World-Wide 20:2, 179-216.

Woods, Nicola (2000) "Archaism and innovation in New Zealand English", English World-Wide 21:1, 109-150. Argues on sociolinguistic grounds that the NZ pronunciation of the KIT vowel is not Scottish in origin.

Zwickl, Simone (2000) "A divided speech community? Language attitudes, religion and ethnic identity across the Northern Irish/Irish Border" in Szilvia Deminger et al. eds. Einstellungsforschung in der Soziolinguistik und Nachbardisziplinen - Studies in Language Attitudes Frankfurt: PUBLISHER.

Zwickl, Simone (2001) "Language Attitudes, Social Identity and Dialect Use across the Northern Irish/Irish Border: Ethnolinguistic Differences in Armagh and Monaghan" unpublished University of Heidelberg PhD thesis.

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48. Scots in non-English-speaking countries

Bartnicki, Krzysztof (1995) "Scotticisms in Polish Texts and Dictionaries" unpublished University of Wroclaw MA thesis.

Horsbroch, Dauvit (1999) "Scots as a European language 1500-1700", Scottish Language 18, 1-16.

Kisbye, Torben (1991) "Compatability and incompatability - three important periods of English-Danish onomastic contact" in Sture Ureland and George Broderick eds. Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 355-367.

Meier, Hans (1987) "Past presences of Older Scots abroad" in Caroline Macafee and Iseabail Macleod eds. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, 116-123.

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